Overview

Brief Summary

Malus, the apples, are a genus of about 30–35 species (or up to 55, in some classifications) of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated apple (M. domestica). The genus is native to the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere, in Europe, Asia and North America.

The domesticated apple was derived from M. sieversii, widely known by the synonym M. pumila. It is often referred to as orchard apple or, formerly, table apple. Other species and subspecies are generally known as "wild apples," "crab apples," "crabapples," or "crabs."

Apple trees are typically 4–12 m tall at maturity, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are 3–10 cm long, alternate, simple, with a serrated margin. The flowers are borne in corymbs, and have five petals, which may be white, pink or red, and are perfect, with usually red stamens that produce copious pollen, and a half-inferior ovary; flowering occurs in the spring after 50–80 growing degree days (varying greatly according to subspecies and cultivar). Crabapples are widely grown as ornamental trees for their beautiful flowers or colorful fruit, with numerous cultivars selected for these qualities and for resistance to disease.

The fruit is a globose pome, varying in size from 1–4 cm diameter in most of the wild species, to 6 cm in M. sylvestris sieversii, 8 cm in M. sylvestris domestica, and even larger in certain cultivated orchard apples; among the largest-fruited cultivars (all of which originate in North America) are 'Wolf River' and 'Stark Jumbo.' The center of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each containing one to two (rarely three) seeds. Fruits from species other than M. domestica are not an important crop in most areas, being extremely sour and (in some species) woody, but they are used as a natural source of pectin for preserves, to flavor cider, and in Asian condiments.

Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects (typically bees, which freely visit the flowers for both nectar and pollen); all are self-sterile, and (with the exception of a few specially developed cultivars) self-pollination is impossible, making pollinating insects essential. Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely.

Malus species are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species.

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Comprehensive Description

Description

Crabapples (Malus species) include about 25 species of deciduous or rarely half-evergreen trees or shrubs native to the temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. They vary from a large shrub-like plant, 6 to 8 feet, to a medium tree, 15 to 35 feet. The branches are slender and upright. Flowers are showy and vary in color from white to pink to deep red. Blooms appear from mid April to early June depending on location. The apples produced are either red or yellow and vary in size from 1/4 inch diameter up to 3/4 inch.

Malus mandshurica (Maxim.) Kom., Siberian crabapple, is a tall, spreading species, 25 to 35 feet in height, best suited to large, open areas. Profuse, fragrant flowers appear in May. The fruit, which can range in color from red to yellow, ripens from August to November. This species is often used in beach gardens which offer some protection from salt and wind.

Malus coronaria (L.) P. Mill., sweet crab, grows upright to as a shrub 15 to 25 feet tall, with pink flowers which appear in mid-March. The large fruit is used as a main wildlife food.

Malus floribunda Sieb. ex Van Houtte, Japanese flowering crab, reaches a mature height of 20 to 25 feet and blooms heavily in May. The blooms are deep pink, fading to white. The red and yellow fruit stays on the branches into the winter, providing a food source for wildlife.

Malus sargeniti Rehd., Sargent crab, is a bushy, densely branched shrub, usually twice as wide as it is tall. Its white flowers bloom profusely in mid May and are followed by deep red fruit, which remains on the branches until December. In addition to the general uses listed above, Sargent crab can be effectively used as a pruned hedge.

Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehd., toringa crab, ranges in size from a shrub to a small tree. Its flowers are white and single, and its reddish yellow fruit hangs in clusters from the branches.

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Distribution

Adaptation

Crabapples can be grown on medium to heavy soils that are somewhat poorly to well drained. The pH should be 5.5 or higher. Full sun is preferred for best performance, but they will tolerate light shade.

Crabapples is distributed throughout the majority of the United States. For a current distribution map, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Website.

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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Crabapples, like other trees and shrubs should not be planted into living sod. The site should be prepared a year ahead so that early spring plantings can be made into weed free locations that are two feet larger in radius than the seedlings. Nursery seedlings of the species discussed above should be planted as early in the spring as possible. Grafted varieties are usually purchased as container plants. When planted, the graft must be above ground. Do not fertilize during the establishment year. Prune off all side branches that are not desired for permanent limbs, and provide protection from rabbits and deer in high population areas.

In hedgerows, space the plants 10 feet apart for ‘Roselow’ and 15-20 feet apart for ‘Midwest’. Plant at least 10 feet away from buildings. Mulching with hay, wood shavings, grass clippings, etc. will help maintain moisture and control weeds.

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Associations

Plant / hibernates / within
prepupa? of Ametastegia glabrata hibernates inside fruit of Malus

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Anthonomus humeralis feeds on Malus

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Anthonomus piri feeds on Malus

Plant / resting place / within
usually solitary pupa of Anthonomus pomorum may be found in live, aborted flower of Malus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Athelia arachnoidea is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Malus

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Atractotomus mali sucks sap of Malus
Remarks: season: late 6-early 8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Aurantiporus fissilis is saprobic on large, dead, standing trunk of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia mesenterica is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bjerkandera fumosa is saprobic on decayed wood of Malus

Foodplant / gall
egg of Blepharidopterus angulatus causes gall of twig (1-2 years old) of Malus

Foodplant / false gall
stromatic pseudothecium of Botryosphaeria obtusa causes swelling of branch of Malus

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Bruchus pisorum feeds on pollen? of Malus
Remarks: season: 4-7(-9)

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Byturus tomentosus feeds on live pollen of Malus
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Campylomma verbasci sucks sap of Malus

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Compsidolon salicellus sucks sap of Malus
Remarks: season: 7-10

Foodplant / saprobe
Coniothecium chomatosporum is saprobic on fruit cracks of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dasineura mali causes gall of leaf of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Malus

Foodplant / pathogen
Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe perniciosa infects and damages cankered, dyingback branch of Malus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Diatrype stigma is saprobic on dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch of Malus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / feeds on
Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia griffoni feeds on Malus

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes malinus causes gall of leaf of Malus

Foodplant / gall
Eriosoma lanigerum causes gall of white woolly-covered branch of Malus
Remarks: season: 3-

Foodplant / sap sucker
Eulecanium excrescens sucks sap of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
larva of Ferdinandea is saprobic on sap run of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes is saprobic on dead wood of Malus
Remarks: season: mainly winter

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma applanatum parasitises live trunk of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Ganoderma lucidum is saprobic on dead stump of Malus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on dead twig of Malus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gymnopilus junonius is saprobic on decayed wood of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
aecium of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae causes gall of live fruit of Malus

Plant / associate
Heringia is associated with aphid infested Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
widely effused stroma of Hypoxylon rubiginosum agg. is saprobic on dead branch of Malus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Inonotus hispidus is saprobic on dead trunk of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
fruitbody of Inonotus obliquus causes gall of live trunk of Malus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
short-stalked apothecium of Lachnum cerinum is saprobic on usually decorticate wood of Malus
Remarks: season: 3-9

Foodplant / saprobe
densely encrusting Lepidosaphes ulmi is saprobic on live branch of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucogyrophana mollusca is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Malus
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / associate
imago of Magdalis armigera is associated with Malus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Magdalis barbicornis mines below cambium of dead twig of Malus

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Magdalis cerasi feeds on Malus

Plant / associate
Malacocoris chlorizans is associated with Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, thickly clustered perithecium of Melanopsamma pomiformis is saprobic on wood of Malus
Remarks: season: 11-4

Plant / associate
larva of Meliscaeva cinctella is associated with aphid-infested Malus

Plant / resting place / on
swarming adult of Melolontha melolontha may be found on canopy of Malus
Remarks: season: 5-6

Foodplant / saprobe
long-stalked apothecium of Monilinia fructigena is saprobic on overwintered, mummified fruit of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Monodictys dematiaceous anamorph of Monodictys melanopa is saprobic on bark of Malus

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, immersed pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Mycosphaerella pomi causes spots on live leaf of Malus
Remarks: season: 8-11

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina is saprobic on dead branch of Malus

Foodplant / pathogen
Cylindrocarpon anamorph of Nectria galligena infects and damages cankered branch of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria peziza is saprobic on dead, often rotten stump of Malus
Remarks: season: 8-12

Foodplant / feeds on
Cylindrocarpon anamorph of Nectria radicicola feeds on Malus

Plant / associate
perithecium of Nitschkia parasitans is associated with dead branch of Malus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Obrium cantharinum feeds within wood of Malus

Foodplant / feeds on
Orthotylus marginalis feeds on Malus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Oxyporus populinus parasitises live wood of Malus

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Penicillium dematiaceous anamorph of Penicillium expansum infects and damages soft, brown, rotten, musty-smelling fruit of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Perenniporia ochroleuca is associated with live trunk of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
conidioma of Phlyctema coelomycetous anamorph of Pezicula alba is saprobic on fruit of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
conidioma of Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pezicula corticola infects and damages cankered bark of Malus

Foodplant / pathogen
conidioma of Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pezicula malicorticis infects and damages cankered branch of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phaeomarasmius rimulincola is saprobic on dead, fallen twig of Malus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phellinus igniarius parasitises live trunk of Malus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phellinus pomaceus is saprobic on dead Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota squarrosa is saprobic on relatively freshly cut, white rotted stump of Malus

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma epicoccina feeds on Malus

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, immersed pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma pomorum causes spots on live/dead leaf of Malus

Foodplant / feeds on
Phyllobius oblongus feeds on Malus

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, scattered, sometimes grouped, immersed pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta briardii causes spots on live leaf of Malus
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Phytobia carbonaria feeds within twig (cambium) of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pleurotus dryinus is saprobic on live, standing trunk of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
conidial anamorph of Podosphaera leucotricha infects and damages live leaf of Malus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pogonocherus hispidulus feeds within dead twig of Malus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Pogonocherus hispidus feeds within dead twig of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus splendidus feeds on Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia tephroleuca is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk (large) of Malus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
immersed, stromatic, solitary or in small groups perithecium of Potebniamyces pyri infects and damages cankered bark of Malus
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Prionychus ater feeds within decaying wood of Malus

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Psallus ambiguus sucks sap of Malus
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites aequatus feeds within fruit of Malus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites bacchus feeds within fruit of Malus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites caeruleus feeds within decaying shoot of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, short-stalked apothecium of Rutstroemia rhenana is saprobic on dead branch of Malus
Remarks: season: 10

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sarcodontia crocea is saprobic on dead, hollow trunk of Malus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
densely clustered, immersed then breaking through pycnidium of Sclerophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Sclerophoma mali is saprobic on dead twig of Malus

Plant / resting place / within
ovum of Sinodendron cylindricum may be found in sawdust-packed tunnel in dead wood of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Spongipellis spumeus is saprobic on wood of Malus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Strasseria carpophila is saprobic on black, rotted apple of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, becoming erumpeny conidioma of Strasseria coelomycetous anamorph of Strasseria geniculata is saprobic on dead twig of Malus
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Strossmayeria basitricha is saprobic on dead branch of Malus

Plant / resting place / on
male of Taeniothrips inconsequens may be found on live Malus
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tetrops praeustus feeds within moribund branch of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
subepidermal acervulus of Truncatella coelomycetous anamorph of Truncatella angustata is saprobic on dead rootstock of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent through bark, often in large clusters apothecium of Tympanis conspersa is saprobic on dead twig of Malus
Remarks: season: 1-7

Foodplant / saprobe
subgregarious to densely scattered, covered then erumpent, blackish grey with paler roundish flat disc stroma of Cytospora anamorph of Valsa ambiens is saprobic on dead branch of Malus
Remarks: season: 10-5
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, in groups of about 10 perithecium of Valsa ceratosperma is saprobic on branch of Malus
Remarks: season: 11-3

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Venturia inaequalis infects and damages live twig of Malus

Foodplant / gall
haustorium of Viscum album causes gall of branch of Malus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Volvariella bombycina is saprobic on dead stump (large) of Malus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erect stroma of Xylaria hypoxylon is saprobic on old stump of Malus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:519
Specimens with Sequences:586
Specimens with Barcodes:189
Species:67
Species With Barcodes:64
Public Records:455
Public Species:61
Public BINs:0
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Malus cf.x robusta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Conservation

Conservation Status

Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

Weeds and grass, if left to grow around young plants can stifle their growth. Rabbits may damage or kill young plants. If the rabbit population is high, some protection is recommended. Diseases include fireblight, apple scab, frogeye leaf spot, and black rot. Insects include fall webworm cankerworms, and apple maggot.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

There are many ornamental cultivars of crabapple available from commercial nurseries and garden centers. Most are horticultural selections intended for urban and suburban landscapes, and many of these are grafted onto select rootstocks. The variety should be selected based on the intended use. If the use is primarily for wildlife food, seedlings of the species can be purchased at a fraction of the cost of grafted varieties which are recommended for ornamental plantings. The seed propagated conservation selections exhibit some variability. Some of the cultivars selected for conservation use include:

‘Midwest’ Siberian crab (Asia) is 25-35 feet tall, and usually spreads at least that wide. It needs considerable space for full development. ‘Midwest’ has white flowers with a pink cast, and is hardy everywhere in the Northeast.

‘Roselow’ sargent crab (Japan) is a bushy, densely branched shrub that is often twice as wide as the 8 foot height. White flowers produce deep red fruit. ‘Roselow’ can be pruned as a hedge. Avoid planting this cultivar in wetter soils. It is not hardy in the northern counties of NY, VT, NH, and ME.

Common toringa crab is variable in size but generally is a small tree. It has white flowers and reddish yellow fruit that is borne in clusters. It is not hardy in NY, VT, NH, ME, and northwestern MA.

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Weeds must be controlled for the first 2 years if plants are to survive. The application of fertilizer is not recommended at the time of establishment. The size and shape of the tree can be managed by pruning. Prune all branches that form sharp angles with the trunk, and remove all side branches except those desired for permanent limbs. Once crabapples become well established, little care is required.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Crabapples are used primarily in landscape plantings, in shelterbelts, and for wildlife benefits. The fruit is eaten by songbirds and upland game, and can be used for making jellies and spiced apples.

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Wikipedia

Malus

"Crabapple" and "Wild apple" redirect here. For the cultivated fruit, see Apple. For the unrelated Australian tree, see Pouteria eerwah. For other uses, see Crabapple (disambiguation) and Malus (disambiguation)

Malus (/ˈmləs/[3] or /ˈmæləs/), apple, is a genus of about 30–55 species[4] of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated orchard apple (M. domestica). The other species are generally known as crabapples, crab apples, crabs, or wild apples.

The genus is native to the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere.

Description[edit]

Flowering crabapple blooms
Ripe Wild Crab Apples (Malus sylvestris)
Crabapple fruit are mostly red,[5] but some, such as this cultivar 'Golden Hornet', are yellow
Trunk of malus

Apple trees are typically 4–12 m (13–39 ft) tall at maturity, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are 3–10 cm (1.2–3.9 in) long, alternate, simple, with a serrated margin. The flowers are borne in corymbs, and have five petals, which may be white, pink or red, and are perfect, with usually red stamens that produce copious pollen, and a half-inferior ovary; flowering occurs in the spring after 50–80 growing degree days (varying greatly according to subspecies and cultivar).

Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects (typically bees, which freely visit the flowers for both nectar and pollen); all are self-sterile, and (with the exception of a few specially developed cultivars) self-pollination is impossible, making pollinating insects essential. Several Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely.[6] They are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Malus.

The fruit is a globose pome, varying in size from 1–4 cm (0.39–1.57 in) diameter in most of the wild species, to 6 cm (2.4 in) in M. sylvestris sieversii, 8 cm (3.1 in) in M. domestica, and even larger in certain cultivated orchard apples. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each containing one or two seeds.

Cultivation[edit]

For the Malus domestica cultivars, the cultivated apples, see Apple.

Crabapples are popular as compact ornamental trees, providing blossom in Spring and colourful fruit in Autumn. The fruits often persist throughout Winter. Numerous hybrid cultivars have been selected, of which 'Evereste'[7] and 'Red Sentinel'[8] have gained The Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Other varieties are dealt with under their species names.

Some crabapples are used as rootstocks for domestic apples to add beneficial characteristics.[9] For example, varieties of Baccata, also called Siberian crab, rootstock is used to give additional cold hardiness to the combined plant for orchards in cold northern areas.[10]

They are also used as pollinizers in apple orchards. Varieties of crabapple are selected to bloom contemporaneously with the apple variety in an orchard planting, and the crabs are planted every sixth or seventh tree, or limbs of a crab tree are grafted onto some of the apple trees. In emergencies, a bucket or drum bouquet of crabapple flowering branches are placed near the beehives as orchard pollenizers. See also Fruit tree pollination. Because of the plentiful blossoms and small fruit, crabapples are popular for use in bonsai culture.

Crabapples are small and sour tasting, and visually resemble a small apple found for sale in some supermarkets (such as H Mart) known as the "Lady Apple" AKA Pomme d'Api, Lady's Finger, Wax Apple and Christmas Apple.

Uses[edit]

Crabapple fruit is not an important crop in most areas, being extremely sour and (in some species) woody, and is rarely eaten raw for this reason. In some southeast Asian cultures they are valued as a sour condiment, sometimes eaten with salt and chilli pepper, or shrimp paste.

Some crabapples varieties are an exception to the reputation of being sour, and can be very sweet, such as the 'Chestnut' cultivar.[11]

Crabapples are an excellent source of pectin, and their juice can be made into a ruby-coloured preserve with a full, spicy flavour.[12] A small percentage of crabapples in cider makes a more interesting flavour.[13] As Old English Wergulu, the crab apple is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century.

Apple wood gives off a pleasant scent when burned, and smoke from an apple wood fire gives an excellent flavour to smoked foods.[14] It is easier to cut when green; dry apple wood is exceedingly difficult to carve by hand.[14] It is a good wood for cooking fires because it burns hot and slow, without producing much flame.[14]

Crabapple has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[15] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. However according to Cancer Research UK, "there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer".[16]

Species[edit]

Cultivars[edit]

  • Malus × moerlandsii Door. 'profusion' - Profusion crabapple

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cirrus Digital Purple Prince Crabapple
  2. ^ Potter, D., et al. (2007). Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266(1–2): 5–43. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
  3. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  4. ^ Phipps, J.B. et aL. (1990). "A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae)". Can. J. Bot. 68 (10): 2209. doi:10.1139/b90-288. 
  5. ^ "Macro video of a Malus Evereste apple on a tree in winter". YouTube. 
  6. ^ Ken Wilson and D.C. Elfving. "Crabapple Pollenizers for Apples". Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Retrieved 12 Sep 2013. 
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus 'Evereste'". Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Malus 'Red Sentinel'". Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  9. ^ Apple Tree Rootstocks Ecogardening Factsheet #21, Summer 1999
  10. ^ Alaska Department of Natural Resources
  11. ^ "The Growing Guide". Stark Bro's Nurseries & Orchards Co. 
  12. ^ Rombauer, I.; Becker, M. R.; Becker, E. (2002) [2002]. All About Canning & Preserving (The Joy of Cooking series). New York: Scribner. p. 72. ISBN 0-7432-1502-8. 
  13. ^ "The Science of Cidermaking". Andrew Lea. Retrieved November 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c Fraser, Anna (22 August 2005, 17 July 2008). "Properties of different trees as firewood".  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ D. S. Vohra (1 June 2004). Bach Flower Remedies: A Comprehensive Study. B. Jain Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-7021-271-3. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  16. ^ "Flower remedies". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved September 2013. 
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