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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Trees or shrubs, sometimes spiny (not in ours). Stipules present. Leaves alternate, simple. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous. sometimes flowering before the leaves. Petals inserted at the mouth of the calyx tube. Stamens 10-many. Carpel 1, style terminal; ovules 2. Fruit drupaceous, indehiscent, 1(-2)-seeded.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
subiculate perithecium of Acanthonitschkea tristis is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 3-5
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Acronicta psi grazes on live leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / gall
Aculus fockeui causes gall of leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / miner
larva of Anthaxia nitidula mines cambium of Prunus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
Endostilbum anamorph of Ascocoryne albidum is saprobic on dead Prunus

Foodplant / gall
larva of Asphondylia pruniperda causes gall of bud of Prunus

Foodplant / shot hole causer
hypophyllous acervulus of Phloeosporella coelomycetous anamorph of Blumeriella jaapii causes shot holes on live leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acladium anamorph of Botryobasidium conspersum is saprobic on dead bark of Prunus

Foodplant / gall
Brachycaudus cardui causes gall of leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / false gall
Brachycaudus helichrysi causes swelling of curled leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / gall
Brachycaudus schwartzi causes gall of leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium bloxamii is saprobic on rotten bark of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium masonii is saprobic on rotten wood of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium obovatum is saprobic on rotten wood of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Byssomerulius corium is saprobic on fallen, decayed wood of Prunus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spinner
caterpillar of Cacoecimorpha pronubana spins live leaf of Prunus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
epiphyllous larva of Caliroa cerasi grazes on leaf of Prunus
Remarks: season: 6-9
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
stroma of Capronia nigerrima is associated with fungus-infected wood of Prunus
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / pathogen
basidiome of Chondrostereum purpureum infects and damages dying Prunus

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Clytra laeviuscula grazes on live flower of Prunus
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, numerous, gregarious pycnidium of Coleophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Coleophoma cylindrospora is saprobic on dead leaf of Prunus
Remarks: season: 4-5

Plant / associate
perithecium of Cosmospora purtonii is associated with dead, fungus infected branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 3-7

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Cryptocoryneum dematiaceous anamorph of Cryptocoryneum condensatum is saprobic on dead bark of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, plurilocular stroma of Cytosporina coelomycetous anamorph of Cytosporina ludibunda p.p. (Prunus form) is saprobic on branch of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedaleopsis confragosa is saprobic on dead wood of Prunus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dasineura tortrix causes gall of leaves (terminal) of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Haplographium dematiaceous anamorph of Dematioscypha dematiicola is saprobic on dead branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Diatrype stigma is saprobic on dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Diplococcium dematiaceous anamorph of Diplococcium spicatum is saprobic on dead, often rotting wood of Prunus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Entoloma niphoides is associated with Prunus
Remarks: season: usually spring
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes padi causes gall of leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes phloeocoptes causes gall of leaf scar of Prunus

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes similis causes gall of leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Eulecanium excrescens sucks sap of Prunus

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Euproctis similis grazes on live leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
loosely gregarious, covered then erumpent by transverse fissure, radially plurilocular stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Eutypella prunastri is saprobic on dead branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: Winter, Spring

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Farlowiella carmichaeliana is saprobic on dead bark of Prunus
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / saprobe
leathery, stromatic, grouped, immersed then emrging by transverse fissure, compressed, reddish-black pycnidium of Foveostroma coelomycetous anamorph of Foveostroma drupacearum is saprobic on dead bark of Prunus
Remarks: season: autumn

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Gloeodes anamorph of Gloeodes pomigena causes spots on live, sometimes dwarfed fruit of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on dead twig of Prunus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Gnorimus nobilis feeds within wood mould of stump of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Graphium dematiaceous anamorph of Graphium calicioides is saprobic on rotten wood of Prunus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Helminthosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Helminthosporium velutinum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Prunus

Plant / associate
effuse colony of Heteroconium anamorph of Heteroconium tetracoilum is associated with damp, rotten branch of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse stroma of Hypoxylon multiforme is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 10-4
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
often long-stalked apothecium of Lachnum brevipilosum is saprobic on rotten branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 1-9

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, closely packed in large clusters perithecium of Lasiosphaeria spermoides is saprobic on rotting wood of Prunus
Remarks: season: 11-4

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, stromatic, in group of usually 3 to 8 perithecium of Lopadostoma turgidum is saprobic on dead, fallen, characteristically reddish-brown branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 11-4

Foodplant / miner
caterpillar of Lyonetia clerkella mines live leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / miner
larva of Magdalis barbicornis mines below cambium of dead twig of Prunus

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Magdalis ruficornis feeds on dead twig of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, often in very large clusters pseudothecium of Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is saprobic on dry, hard, decorticate branch wood of Prunus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Menispora ciliata is saprobic on dead wood of Prunus

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilia dematiaceous anamorph of Monilinia fructicola infects and damages brown rotted fruit of Prunus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilinia laxa infects and damages live, cankered spur shoot of Prunus

Plant / associate
Mycetochara humeralis is associated with Prunus

Foodplant / false gall
Myzus cerasi causes swelling of curled leaf of Prunus
Remarks: season: 3-7, autumn

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina is saprobic on dead branch of Prunus

Plant / associate
perithecium of Nectria episphaeria is associated with pyrenomycete infection Prunus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / pathogen
Nectria galligena infects and damages cankered branch of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
becoming superficial perithecium of Neopeckia fulcita is saprobic on dead branch of Prunus

Foodplant / web feeder
communal larva of Neurotoma saltuum feeds from web on leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Orgyia antiqua grazes on live leaf of Prunus
Remarks: season: -7/8

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Orsodacne cerasi feeds on anther of Prunus
Remarks: season: 4-9

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oudemansiella mucida is saprobic on dead branch of Prunus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / roller
larva of Pamphilius sylvaticus rolls leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Panellus ringens is saprobic on dead, fallen twig of Prunus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Parthenolecanium corni sucks sap of live shoot of Prunus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Pentatoma rufipes sucks sap of Prunus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Phaeoisaria dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeoisaria clavulata is saprobic on rotten wood of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus cyclosporus is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phellinus pomaceus parasitises live Prunus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota squarrosa is saprobic on relatively freshly cut, white rotted stump of Prunus

Foodplant / pathogen
scattered or clustered, immersed, then semi-immersed, finally superficial pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis perniciosa infects and damages cankered fruit of Prunus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phylloporia ribis parasitises live trunk of Prunus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / shot hole causer
few, minute, immersed pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta circumscissa causes shot holes on live leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / shot hole causer
amphigenous, scattered pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta prunicola causes shot holes on live leaf of Prunus
Remarks: season: 9-10

Foodplant / saprobe
becoming superficial, scattered pycnidium of Pleurophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Pleurophoma pleurospora is saprobic on dead Prunus
Remarks: season: 3,11

Foodplant / pathogen
Plum Line Pattern virus infects and damages patterned leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus splendidus feeds on Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus ciliatus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Prunus
Remarks: season: summer
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Prionychus ater feeds within decaying wood of Prunus

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Priophorus pallipes grazes on leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / pathogen
Prune Dwarf virus infects and damages live, small, narrowed, thickened, irregular margined leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona sucks sap of thickly encrusted branch (old) of Prunus

Foodplant / spot causer
Pseudomonas syringae pv. mors-prunorum causes spots on live leaf of Prunus
Remarks: season: late spring
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringiae causes spots on live leaf of Prunus
Remarks: season: late spring
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Putoniella pruni causes gall of leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Rhogogaster punctulata grazes on leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae sucks sap of live Prunus
Remarks: season: winter

Foodplant / false gall
Rhopalosiphum padi causes swelling of curled leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites aequatus feeds within fruit of Prunus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites auratus feeds within fruit kernel of Prunus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites bacchus feeds within fruit of Prunus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhynchites caeruleus feeds within decaying shoot of Prunus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Scolytus mali feeds within cambium of Prunus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Scolytus rugulosus feeds within cambium of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Spadicoides dematiaceous anamorph of Spadicoides bina is saprobic on dead wood of Prunus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium altum is saprobic on bark of Prunus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / internal feeder
underground larva of Stenocorus meridianus feeds within dead root of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Strossmayeria basitricha is saprobic on dead branch of Prunus

Plant / resting place / on
male of Taeniothrips inconsequens may be found on live Prunus
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / gall
infection of Taphrina pruni causes gall of live fruit of Prunus

Foodplant / gall
fruitbody of Taphrina wiesneri causes gall of live, galled shoot tip of Prunus

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo ferruginea grazes on leaf of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes hirsuta is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Prunus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes ochracea is saprobic on dead wood of Prunus

Plant / epiphyte
colony of Trentepohlia abietina grows on bark of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Trichothecium anamorph of Trichothecium roseum is saprobic on fallen branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 10-3

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Triposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Triposporium elegans is saprobic on dead, often grey or purple stained twig of Prunus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
subepidermal acervulus of Truncatella coelomycetous anamorph of Truncatella angustata is saprobic on dead rootstock of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
subgregarious to densely scattered, covered then erumpent, blackish grey with paler roundish flat disc stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Valsa ambiens is saprobic on branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 10-5

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, stromatic, in group of 3 to 8 perithecium of Valsa cypri is saprobic on dead branch (cortex) of Prunus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, stromatic, in groups of 7-10 perithecium of Valsaria insitiva is saprobic on dead branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 10-11

Foodplant / pathogen
small dark green, velvety colony of Fusicladium dematiaceous anamorph of Venturia cerasi infects and damages live leaf of Prunus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erect stroma of Xylaria polymorpha is saprobic on dead branch of Prunus
Remarks: season: 9-11

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Foodplant / pathogen
Cherry Little Cherry phytoplasma infects and damages half-sized, late, unevenly ripening fruit of Prunus (flowering spp)

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Known predators

Prunus (PopuluSymphoricarpos, Corylus, Prunus, Amelanchier) is prey of:
fomes
canker
Saperda
Dicera
Bonasa umbellus
Lepus americanus
Clethrionomys
Spermophilus franklinii
Insecta

Based on studies in:
Canada: Manitoba (Forest)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 406 (1930).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:1,061Public Records:740
Specimens with Sequences:975Public Species:165
Specimens with Barcodes:925Public BINs:0
Species:180         
Species With Barcodes:175         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Prunus

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Plum

For other uses, see Plum (disambiguation).

A plum is a drupe fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having a terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).

Mature plum fruit may have a dusty-white coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bloom". Dried plum fruits are called dried plums or prunes, although prunes are a distinct type of plum, and may have antedated the fruits now commonly known as plums.[citation needed]

Description[edit]

Plums are a diverse group of species. The commercially important plum trees are medium sized, usually pruned to 5-6 meters height. The tree is of medium hardiness.[2] Without pruning, the trees can reach 12 meters in height and spread across 10 meters. They blossom in different months in different parts of the world; for example, in about January in Taiwan and about April in the United States.[3]

Fruits are usually of medium size, between 1 to 3 inches in diameter, globose to oval. The flesh is firm, juicy and mealy. The fruit's peel is smooth, with a natural waxy surface that adheres to the flesh. The fruit has a single large seed.

Species[edit]

Prunus cultivar (mature fruits with natural wax bloom)
Plum flowers

Plum has many species, and taxonomists differ on the count. Depending on the taxonomist, between 19 to 40 species of plum exist. From this diversity only two species, the hexaploid European plum (Prunus domestica) and the diploid Japanese plum (Prunus salicina and hybrids), are of worldwide commercial significance. The origin of these commercially important species is uncertain but may have involved P. cerasifera and possibly P. spinosa as ancestors. Other species of plum variously originated in Europe, Asia and America.[4]

The subgenus Prunus is divided into three sections:

  • Sect. Prunus (Old World plums)- leaves in bud rolled inwards; flowers 1-3 together; fruit smooth, often wax-bloomed
  • Sect. Prunocerasus (New World plums) - leaves in bud folded inwards; flowers 3-5 together; fruit smooth, often wax-bloomed
  • Sect. Armeniaca (apricots) - leaves in bud rolled inwards; flowers very short-stalked; fruit velvety; treated as a distinct subgenus by some authors

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Cultivar Regina Claudia yellow
Plums, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy192 kJ (46 kcal)
11.42 g
Sugars9.92 g
Dietary fiber1.4 g
0.28 g
0.7 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(2%)
17 μg
(2%)
190 μg
73 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(2%)
0.028 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
0.026 mg
Niacin (B3)
(3%)
0.417 mg
(3%)
0.135 mg
Vitamin B6
(2%)
0.029 mg
Folate (B9)
(1%)
5 μg
Vitamin C
(11%)
9.5 mg
Vitamin E
(2%)
0.26 mg
Vitamin K
(6%)
6.4 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
6 mg
Iron
(1%)
0.17 mg
Magnesium
(2%)
7 mg
Manganese
(2%)
0.052 mg
Phosphorus
(2%)
16 mg
Potassium
(3%)
157 mg
Sodium
(0%)
0 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.1 mg
Other constituents
Fluoride2 µg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The taste of the plum fruit ranges from sweet to tart; the skin itself may be particularly tart. It is juicy and can be eaten fresh or used in jam-making or other recipes. Plum juice can be fermented into plum wine. In central England, a cider-like alcoholic beverage known as plum jerkum is made from plums.

Dried plums (or prunes) are also sweet and juicy and contain several antioxidants. Plums and prunes are known for their laxative effect. This effect has been attributed to various compounds present in the fruits, such as dietary fiber, sorbitol,[6] and isatin.[7] Prunes and prune juice are often used to help regulate the functioning of the digestive system. Dried prune marketers in the USA have, in recent years, begun marketing their product as "dried plums". This is due to "prune" having negative connotations connected with elderly people suffering from constipation.[8]

Dried, salted plums are used as a snack, sometimes known as saladito or salao. Various flavors of dried plum are available at Chinese grocers and specialty stores worldwide. They tend to be much drier than the standard prune. Cream, ginsing, spicy, and salty are among the common varieties. Licorice is generally used to intensify the flavor of these plums and is used to make salty plum drinks and toppings for shaved ice or baobing.

Different cultivars of plums

Damson plums
Greengage plums
Mirabelle plums
Victoria plums

Pickled plums are another type of preserve available in Asia and international specialty stores. The Japanese variety, called umeboshi, is often used for rice balls, called onigiri or omusubi. The ume, from which umeboshi are made, is more closely related, however, to the apricot than to the plum.

As with many other members of the rose family, plum seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides, including amygdalin.[9] These substances are capable of decomposing into a sugar molecule and hydrogen cyanide gas. While plum seeds are not the most toxic within the rose family (the bitter almond is the most toxic[citation needed]), large doses of these chemicals from any source are hazardous to human health.

Prune kernel oil is made from the fleshy inner part of the pit of the plum.

Plums come in a wide variety of colors and sizes. Some are much firmer-fleshed than others, and some have yellow, white, green or red flesh, with equally varying skin color.

Plum cultivars in use today include:

  • Damson (purple or black skin, green flesh, clingstone, astringent)
  • Greengage (firm, green flesh and skin even when ripe)
  • Mirabelle (dark yellow, predominantly grown in northeast France)
  • Satsuma plum (firm red flesh with a red skin)
  • Victoria (yellow flesh with a red or mottled skin)
  • Yellowgage or golden plum (similar to greengage, but yellow)

When it flowers in the early spring, a plum tree will be covered in blossoms, and in a good year approximately 50% of the flowers will be pollinated and become plums. Flowering starts after 80 growing degree days.

If the weather is too dry, the plums will not develop past a certain stage, but will fall from the tree while still tiny, green buds, and if it is unseasonably wet or if the plums are not harvested as soon as they are ripe, the fruit may develop a fungal condition called brown rot. Brown rot is not toxic, and very small affected areas can be cut out of the fruit, but unless the rot is caught immediately, the fruit will no longer be edible. Plum is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera, including November moth, willow beauty and short-cloaked moth.

The Serbian plum (Serbian: шљива / šljiva) is the third most produced in the world. In the Balkans, plum is converted into an alcoholic drink named slivovitz (plum brandy) (Serbian: шљивовица / šljivovica).[10][11]

A large number of plums, of the Damson variety, are also grown in Hungary, where they are called szilva and are used to make lekvar (a plum paste jam), palinka (a slivovitz-type liquor), plum dumplings, and other foods. The region of Szabolcs-Szatmár, in the northeastern part of the country near the borders with Ukraine and Romania, is a major producer of plums.

The plum blossom or meihua (Chinese: 梅花; pinyin: méihuā), along with the peony, are considered traditional floral emblems of China.

The plum is commonly used in China, Yunnan area, to produce a local plum wine with a smooth, sweet, fruity taste and approximately 12% alcohol by volume.[citation needed]

History[edit]

A plum tree

Plums may have been one of the first fruits domesticated by humans.[12] Three of the most abundant cultivars are not found in the wild, only around human settlements: Prunus domestica has been traced to East European and Caucasian mountains, while Prunus salicina and Prunus simonii originated in Asia. Plum remains have been found in Neolithic age archaeological sites along with olives, grapes and figs.[13][14]

Etymology and names[edit]

The fruit Prunus armeniaca gained its name from the beliefs of Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian and scientist of the first century, who maintained the apricot was a kind of a plum, and had originally come from Armenia.[15] Armenian sources support their claims by referring to a 6,000-year-old apricot pit found in an archaeological site near Yerevan.[15] Other historians point to Mesopotamia as a clue to the Latin name. Apricots were cultivated in Mesopotamia, and it was known as armanu in the Akkadian language, but this did not refer to Armenia as that is not the name by which that geographic region was known in the Akkadian language. It is likely that Pliny's explanation is a folk etymology based on the similarity between the Mesopotamian name for the fruit and the Latin name for Armenia.[citation needed]

In certain parts of the world, some fruits are called plums and are quite different from fruits known as plums in Europe or the Americas. For example, marian plums are popular in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, otherwise also known as gandaria, plum mango, ma-praang, ma-yong, ramania, kundang, rembunia or setar.[16] Another example is the Japanese plum, popular as pipa or Chinese plums in East Asia and Southeast Asia, and as Japanese medlar, loquat, nispero, bibassier and wollmispel elsewhere.[17][18] In South Asia and Southeast Asia, Jambul - a fruit from tropical tree in Myrtaceae family, is similarly sometimes referred to 'damson plums', and it is different from damson plums found in Europe and Americas.[19] Jambul is also called as Java plum, Malabar plum, jaman, jamun, jamblang, jiwat, salam, duhat, koeli, jambuláo or koriang.

Production[edit]

Top Plum Producing Countries - 2011
(in million metric tons)
RankCountryProduction
(Tonnes)
1 China5,873,656
2 Serbia581,874
3 Romania573,596
4 Chile293,205
5 Iran288,205
6 United States281,499
7 Turkey268,696
8 Spain230,877
9 India199,241
10 Italy191,989
World9,921,953
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization [20]

Plums are produced around the world, and China is the world's largest producer. The table below shows the ten largest producers of plums and sloe in 2011; the second to tenth rankings change almost every year due in part to the alternate bearing nature of plum trees.

In the United States, the Japanese varieties of plums are predominant. California was the dominant producer in 2011; other producers are Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Michigan. Mild winters, minimal rainfall during the growing season and low humidity favor more productive crops in California.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Khanizadeh, S. and J. Cousineau. 2000. A Fully Bilingual Book Entitled "Our Plums/ Les Pruniers de Chez Nous", A Description of Over 60 Plum Cultivars Evaluated in Quebec along with Over 150 Coloured Images. Publisher Shahrokh Khanizadeh for the Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Ed: S. Khanizadeh. ISBN 0-660-61568-1.

  1. ^ D. Potter, T. Eriksson, R. C. Evans, S. Oh, J. E. E. Smedmark, D. R. Morgan, M. Kerr, K. R. Robertson, M. Arsenault, T. A. Dickinson & C. S. Campbell (2007). "Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae" (PDF). Plant Systematics and Evolution 266 (1–2): 5–43. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9.  Note that this publication pre-dates the 2011 International Botanical Congress which mandates that the combined subfamily referred to in the paper as Spiraeoideae must be called Amygdaloideae.
  2. ^ "Plum, prune, European type". Purdue University. 1999. 
  3. ^ Prunus domestica L.
  4. ^ Bruce L. Topp, Dougal M. Russell, Michael Neumüller, Marco A. Dalbó and Weisheng Liu (2012). Plum (Handbook of Plant Breeding). 8, part 3. pp. 571–621. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0763-9_15. 
  5. ^ Flora of China - Prunus simonii Carrière
  6. ^ M. Roach, The power of prunes (1999)
  7. ^ FoodTV article on plums
  8. ^ Jason Zasky. "Turning Over a New Leaf Change from 'Prune' to 'Dried Plum' Proving Fruitful". Archived from the original on 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  9. ^ Burrows, G.E.; Tyrl, R.J. (2012). "Rosaceae Juss.". Toxic Plants of North America. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 1064–1094. 
  10. ^ Crowell and Guymon (1973). "Aroma Constituents of Plum Brandy". American Journal of Enology 24 (4): 159–165. 
  11. ^ Jan Velíšek, František Pudil, Jiří Davídek and Vladislav Kubelka (1982). "The neutral volatile components of Czechoslovak plum brandy". ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR LEBENSMITTELUNTERSUCHUNG UND -FORSCHUNG A 174 (6): 463–466. doi:10.1007/BF01042726. 
  12. ^ Jules Janick, ed. (1998). Horticultural Reviews (Volume 23). Wiley. ISBN 978-0471254454. 
  13. ^ Jules Janick (2005). "The origins of fruits, fruit growing and fruit breeding". Purdue University. 
  14. ^ Spangenberg et al. (January 2006). "Chemical analyses of organic residues in archaeological pottery from Arbon Bleiche". Journal of Archaeological Science 33 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2005.05.013. 
  15. ^ a b Armenian Food: Fact, Fiction & Folklore By Irina Petrosian, David Underwood
  16. ^ "Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thailand (see Part 1, section 3)". FAO, United Nations. 2001. 
  17. ^ "Japanese Plum - Loquat". University of Florida, Nassau County Extension, Horticulture. 2006. 
  18. ^ J. Morton (1987). "Loquat". University of Purdue. 
  19. ^ "Jambolan". Purdue University. 2006. 
  20. ^ "Production of Plum by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-26. 
  21. ^ "Plums, fresh market". AgMRC, partially funded by USDA Rural Department. 2012. 
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Prunus sect. Prunocerasus

Prunus sect. Prunocerasus (meaning prune-cherry) is a section of the genus Prunus. Koehne originally described it as comprising the North American plums and placed it in the subgenus Cerasus.[1] The section is now generally recognized as belonging to Prunus subg. Prunus.[2]

Species attributed to this section include:

References

  1. ^ Koehne, 1893 Deutsche dendrologie pp 302, 305, 310-313. Stuttgart: Verlag von Ferdinand Enke. 1893
  2. ^ Shaw and Small "Chloroplast DNA phylogeny and phylogeography of the North American Plums (Prunus subgenus Prunus section Prunocerasus, Rosaceae)" Am. J. of Bot. 92(12): 2011-2030. 2005
  3. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Prunus sect. Prunocerasus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
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