Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Abraxas grossulariata grazes on live leaf of Corylus
Remarks: season: 4-6
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Acronicta psi grazes on live leaf of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Actinocladium anamorph of Actinocladium rhodosporum is saprobic on rotten wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Allantoporthe decedens is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-6

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita battarrae is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita gemmata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita olivaceogrisea is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Amanita vaginata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Amphisphaeria millepunctata is saprobic on dead twig of Corylus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia albida grows on small, decorticated, fallen branch of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodiella romellii grows on decayed wood of Corylus

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodiella semisupina grows on decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clypeate perithecium of Apiosporopsis carpinea is saprobic on overwintered, dead leaf of Corylus

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Mosaic virus infects and damages live, ring-spotted, mosaiced or patchily yellow leaf of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Athelopsis glaucina is saprobic on decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidiodendron spinosum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Basidioradulum radula is saprobic on old, dead, fallen trunk of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Bispora dematiaceous anamorph of Bispora antennata is saprobic on chips of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Bisporella citrina is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 9-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Bolbitius reticulatus is saprobic on decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Alysidium anamorph of Botryobasidium aureum is saprobic on rotten wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Botryobasidium laeve is saprobic on decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
short-stalked apothecium of Brunnipila calyculiformis is saprobic on dead twig of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Calocera pallidospathulata is saprobic on decayed wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Calocybe obscurissima is associated with Corylus

Plant / associate
basidiome of Camarophyllopsis atropuncta is associated with Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed, multi-level perithecium of Camarops lutea is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 8-4

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Camarosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Camarosporium propinquum is saprobic on branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-5

Plant / associate
basidiome of Cantharellus melanoxeros is associated with Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
stroma of Capronia nigerrima is associated with fungus-infected wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceraceomyces sublaevis is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Ceriporia purpurea is saprobic on large, decayed, fallen trunk of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
subiculate perithecium of Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma is associated with fungus infected, fallen branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / saprobe
Codinaea anamorph of Chaetosphaeria callimorpha is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-5
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Chaetosphaeria myriocarpa is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetosphaeria pulviscula is saprobic on dead, often rotten wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara inflatipes is saprobic on bark of Corylus

Foodplant / pathogen
fruitbody of Collybia fusipes infects and damages live root of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial or partly immerse perithecium of Coniochaeta velutina is saprobic on fallen, dead Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersd, often in small groups perithecium of Coronophora angustata is saprobic on branch of Corylus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius balaustinus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius cinnabarinus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius decipiens var. decipiens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius delibutus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius gracilior is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius hinnuleus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius magicus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius praestans is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius raphanoides is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Cortinarius torvus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Croesus brischkei grazes on leaf of Corylus

Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Croesus septentrionalis grazes on live leaf edge of Corylus
Remarks: season: 5-
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus bipunctatus may be found on Corylus
Remarks: season: 4-late 8

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus parvulus may be found on Corylus
Remarks: season: 4-9

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus punctiger may be found on Corylus
Remarks: season: 5-8
Other: uncertain

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus pusillus may be found on Corylus
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Cryptocoryneum dematiaceous anamorph of Cryptocoryneum condensatum is saprobic on dead bark of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, grouped, rupturing periderm perithecium of Cryptodiaporthe pyrrhocystis is saprobic on dead branch (small) of Corylus
Remarks: season: 5

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota bucknallii is associated with Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota hetieri is associated with Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota moelleri is associated with Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota pulverulenta is associated with Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cystolepiota seminuda is associated with Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Daedaleopsis confragosa is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
pulvinate, erumpent or superficial stroma of Daldinia fissa is saprobic on burnt wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
bracket of Datronia mollis is saprobic on dying branch of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Haplographium dematiaceous anamorph of Dematioscypha dematiicola is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Plant / resting place / on
Dendrothrips degeeri may be found on live leaf of Corylus

Plant / resting place / on
Dendrothrips saltator may be found on live Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Diatrype stigma is saprobic on dead, decorticate or with bark rolling back branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clustered, stromatic perithecium of Diatrypella favacea is saprobic on newly fallen branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 11-3
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dictyochaeta dematiaceous anamorph of Dictyochaeta simplex is saprobic on fallen, dead leaf of Corylus
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Dictyosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Dictyosporium toruloides is saprobic on rotten wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Plant / resting place / on
Drepanothrips reuteri may be found on live Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
resupinate fruitbody of Eichleriella deglubens is saprobic on fallen branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Encoelia furfuracea is saprobic on dying branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Encoelia glauca is saprobic on branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella fallacia is saprobic on rotten wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Entoloma euchroum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed perithecium of Eutypa flavovirens is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia glandulosa is saprobic on dead, fallen wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia nucleata is saprobic on dead, fallen, usually decorticate wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia repanda is saprobic on dead, attached branch of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidia thuretiana is saprobic on dead, fallen wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidiopsis calcea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidiopsis effusa is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Acrogenospora dematiaceous anamorph of Farlowiella carmichaeliana is saprobic on dead bark of Corylus
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent stroma of Fenestella fenestrata is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clustered in groups of up to 15 pseudothecium of Fenestella vestita is saprobic on dead branch (small) of Corylus
Remarks: season: 2-3
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, immersed then erumpent stroma of Fusicoccum coelomycetous anamorph of Fusicoccum gloeosporoides is saprobic on twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 4

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Ganoderma lucidum parasitises live stump of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum fimbriatum is associated with Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum fornicatum is associated with Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, becoming erumpent conidioma of Dichomera coelomycetous anamorph of Gibberella zeae is saprobic on twig of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Gloeocystidiellum porosum is saprobic on decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on dead twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Gnomonia gnomon is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Corylus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Grifola frondosa parasitises live root of Corylus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Gyroporus cyanescens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hapalopilus nidulans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hebeloma pallidoluctuosum is associated with Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Helminthosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Helminthosporium velutinum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena tortuosa is saprobic on decayed stick of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
effuse colony of Heteroconium anamorph of Heteroconium tetracoilum is associated with damp, rotten branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hohenbuehelia atrocaerulea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hohenbuehelia fluxilis is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hohenbuehelia mastrucata is saprobic on dead, decayed log (large) of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hydnum repandum is associated with Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hygrocybe chlorophana is associated with Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Hygrocybe pratensis var. pratensis is associated with live Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Hygrophorus persoonii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hymenochaete cinnamomea is saprobic on dead, attached bark of Corylus

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Hymenochaete corrugata parasitises live wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hymenochaete rubiginosa is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hymenochaete tabacina is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus calyculus is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 6-12

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus caudatus is saprobic on decaying petiole of Corylus
Remarks: season: 6-12

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus fructigenus is saprobic on dead, fallen nut of Corylus
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Hymenoscyphus imberbis is saprobic on dead, fallen twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 8-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphoderma litschaueri is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed log of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia barba-jovis is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia crustosa is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia quercina is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia rimosissima is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
Trichoderma dematiaceous anamorph of Hypocrea aureoviridis is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-3

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial stroma of Hypocrea gelatinosa is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 6-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Trichoderma dematiaceous anamorph of Hypocrea rufa is saprobic on rotten wood of Corylus

Foodplant / pathogen
Nodulisporium anamorph of Hypoxylon fuscum infects and damages live branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 2-5
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Geniculosporium anamorph of Hypoxylon howeanum is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse stroma of Hypoxylon multiforme is saprobic on dead, decorticate branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-4
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe adaequata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe bongardii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe calospora is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe corydalina var. corydalina is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe erubescens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: season: 6-summer
Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe fraudans is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe godeyi is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe haemacta is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe hirtella var. hirtella is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe perlata is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe praetervisa is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe pseudoreducta is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe putilla is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Inocybe splendens var. phaeoleuca is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Inonotus radiatus is saprobic on dead, standing trunk of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Junghuhnia nitida is saprobic on decayed, dead wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
caespitose fruitbody of Kuehneromyces mutabilis is saprobic on decayed, dead stump (large) of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Labidostomis tridentata may be found on live leaf of Corylus
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Laccaria amethystina is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius acris is ectomycorrhizal with root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius azonites is ectomycorrhizal with root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius circellatus is ectomycorrhizal with root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius decipiens is ectomycorrhizal with root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius fluens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius fulvissimus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius pallidus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius pterosporus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius pyrogalus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius romagnesii is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius spinosulus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius uvidus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Lactarius vellereus var. vellereus is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
underground rhizome of Lathraea squamaria parasitises root of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Leccinum pseudoscabrum is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lentinellus cochleatus is saprobic on dead, decayed stump of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lenzites betulinus is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota aspera is saprobic on dead, decayed log (large) of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota castanea is saprobic on soil of tree of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota jacobii is saprobic on soil of tree of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota perplexa is saprobic on soil of tree of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepiota xanthophylla is saprobic on soil of tree of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leptosporomyces fuscostratus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed bark of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucoagaricus marriagei is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Leucoagaricus serenus is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of litter of Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Limacella delicata var. delicata is associated with Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Lycoperdon echinatum is associated with Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Lycoperdon mammiforme is associated with Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Macrotyphula fistulosa var. contorta is saprobic on dead, attached twig of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
arranged in rings and visible from both sides of leaf stroma of Mamianiella coryli parasitises live leaf of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmiellus vaillantii is saprobic on dead, fallen twig of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius androsaceus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed leaf of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius bulliardii is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed leaf of Corylus
Remarks: season: - late autumn
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius setosus is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed petiole of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Mariannaea anamorph of Mariannaea elegans is saprobic on bark of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Megacollybia platyphylla is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, grouped in circles under yellowish disc perithecium of Melanconis flavovirens is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 12-4

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, often in very large clusters pseudothecium of Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is saprobic on dry, hard, decorticate branch wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Melanophyllum eyrei is associated with Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Gonytrichum dematiaceous anamorph of Melanopsammella inaequalis is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Chloridium dematiaceous anamorph of Melanopsammella preussii is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 11-5

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent stroma of Melogramma campylosporum is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Menispora dematiaceous anamorph of Menispora ciliata is saprobic on dead bark of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
cyphelloid basidiocarp of Merismodes fasciculata is saprobic on dead, attached twig of Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Merismodes ferruginea is associated with mossy, live bark (branch) of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Micromphale brassicolens var. brassicolens is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Micromphale foetidum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia discolor var. longispora is saprobic on branch of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena capillaris is saprobic on dead, decayed, drifted leaf of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena diosma is saprobic on dead, decayed, fallen leaf of litter of Corylus
Remarks: season: late autumn to early winter

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena polygramma is saprobic on dead, decayed stump of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous, immersed pseudothecia of Mycosphaerella punctiformis is saprobic on overwintered, fallen leaf of Corylus
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
sporodochium of Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent stroma of Nectria coccinea is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Plant / associate
perithecium of Nectria episphaeria is associated with pyrenomycete infection Corylus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria mammoidea var. mammoidea is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Nemania serpens is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Nematus melanocephalus grazes on leaf of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Nematus umbratus grazes on leaf of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
perithecium of Nitschkia collapsa is associated with fungus-infested Corylus
Remarks: season: 8-3

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, necks showing through cracks in bark perithecium of Ophiovalsa corylina is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 12-2

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Orbilia auricolor is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
subiculate apothecium of Patinellaria sanguinea is saprobic on decorticate wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora nuda is saprobic on dead, attached branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Perrotia flammea is saprobic on dead twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Cryptosporiopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Pezicula coryli is saprobic on branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent Cryptosporiopsis anamorph acervulus of Pezicula corylina is saprobic on branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Pezicula paradoxa is saprobic on Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, clustered, short-stalked apothecium of Pezizella vulgaris is saprobic on dead twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 7-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phaeogalera dissimulans is saprobic on fallen, usually decayed twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 11-early 3
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Phaeostalagmus dematiaceous anamorph of Phaeostalagmus cyclosporus is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Phalera bucephala grazes on live leaf of Corylus
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phellinus ferreus parasitises living trunk of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phellinus ferruginosus is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phellinus pomaceus is saprobic on dead Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella pseudotsugae is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked, clustered basidiocarp of Phleogena faginea is saprobic on dead, standing trunk of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-2

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota aurivella is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Pholiota mixta is associated with Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pholiota tuberculosa is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed trunk of Corylus

Plant / resting place / on
hypophyllous cleistothecium of Phyllactinia guttata may be found on dead leaf of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-12
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Phyllobius argentatus feeds on Corylus

Foodplant / feeds on
Phyllobius glaucus feeds on Corylus

Foodplant / feeds on
Phyllobius pyri feeds on Corylus

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Phylloporus pelletieri is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Plicatura crispa is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus phlebophorus is saprobic on dead, fallen, very decayed trunk (large) of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus romellii is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus salicinus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus thomsonii is saprobic on dead, decayed, often part buried wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus cervinus feeds on Corylus

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus flavipes feeds on Corylus

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus mollis feeds on Corylus

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus pterygomalis feeds on Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus splendidus feeds on Corylus

Foodplant / feeds on
Polydrusus tereticollis feeds on Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus brumalis is saprobic on dead, still attached to fallen tree twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: early winter-early spring
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus ciliatus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: summer
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus leptocephalus is saprobic on dead, decayed stump (large) of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus tuberaster is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia subcaesia is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia tephroleuca is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, exposed by peeling back or shedding of host periderm apothecium of Propolis farinosa is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12 (best condition: 2-3)

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Psathyrella lutensis is saprobic on dead, decayed (very) wood of Corylus

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Pseudocraterellus undulatus is associated with Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Pseudospiropes obclavatus is saprobic on fallen branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Radulomyces molaris is saprobic on dead, attached branch of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Resupinatus applicatus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Resupinatus poriaeformis is saprobic on dead, fallen trunk (large) of Corylus
Remarks: season: 9-4
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Rhodocybe griseospora is associated with Corylus

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Rhogogaster punctulata grazes on leaf of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Rosellinia aquila is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 2-5

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula brunneoviolacea is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula delica is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / mycorrhiza / ectomycorrhiza
fruitbody of Russula subfoetens is ectomycorrhizal with live root of Corylus
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sometimes stalked apothecium of Sarcoscypha coccinea agg. is saprobic on fallen, mossy twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-3
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Serendipita orliensis is saprobic on dead, decayed bark of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Serpula himantioides is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent through transverse slits in bark stroma of Sillia ferruginea is saprobic on standing branch (base 3-10cm above soil level) of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Simocybe sumptuosa is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed branch (large) of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotrema hispanicum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotremastrum niveocremeum is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Skeletocutis nivea is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Spadicoides dematiaceous anamorph of Spadicoides grovei is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, gregarious ascocarp of Splanchnonema loricatum is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Steccherinum ochraceum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed twig of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Stereum rugosum parasitises live trunk of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stereum subtomentosum is saprobic on dead, fallen branch (large) of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
deeply sunken apothecium of Stictis radiata is saprobic on dead twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Strossmayeria atriseda is saprobic on dead bark of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pseudospiropes dematiaceous anamorph of Strossmayeria basitricha is saprobic on dead branch of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Taeniolella dematiaceous anamorph of Taeniolella scripta is saprobic on Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse or pulvinate colony of Taeniolella dematiaceous anamorph of Taeniolella stilbospora is saprobic on purple-stained wood or bark of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Taeniolina anamorph of Taeniolina scripta is saprobic on dead bark of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
extensively subiculate apothecium of Tapesia fusca is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo livida grazes on leaf of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Tephrocybe boudieri is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed leaf of litter of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Terana caerulea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Thaumetopoea processionea grazes on Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
fruitbody of Tomentella pilosa may be found on dead, decayed wood of Corylus

Plant / resting place / on
fruitbody of Tomentella umbrinospora may be found on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
fruitbody of Tomentella viridula may be found on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
imago of Trachodes hispidus is associated with dead leaf litter of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes gibbosa is saprobic on dead, decayed stump (large) of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes hirsuta is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes ochracea is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trametes pubescens is saprobic on dead wood of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trechispora stellulata is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus

Plant / associate
basidiocarp of Tremella mesenterica is associated with dead, attached branch of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Trichothecium anamorph of Trichothecium roseum is saprobic on fallen branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-3

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, sometimes confluent sporodochium of Trimmatostroma dematiaceous anamorph of Trimmatostroma betulinum is saprobic on fallen branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 2-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Triposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Triposporium elegans is saprobic on dead, often grey or purple stained twig of Corylus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Helicosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Tubeufia cerea is saprobic on dead bark of Corylus
Remarks: season: 4-10

Foodplant / saprobe
Tubulicrinis glebulosus is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Tulasnella cystidiophora is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Tulasnella interrogans is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
sclerotial fruitbody of Typhula phacorrhiza is saprobic on damp, dead, decayed leaf of litter of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Tyromyces chioneus is saprobic on dead, stacked log of Corylus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
subgregarious to densely scattered, covered then erumpent, blackish grey with paler roundish flat disc stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Valsa ambiens is saprobic on branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 10-5

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, in groups of about 10 perithecium of Valsa ceratosperma is saprobic on branch of Corylus
Remarks: season: 11-3

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Virgaria dematiaceous anamorph of Virgaria nigra is saprobic on bark of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Vuilleminia comedens is saprobic on dead, decorticate, attached branch of Corylus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Vuilleminia coryli is saprobic on dead, decorticate, attached branch of Corylus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erect stroma of Xylaria hypoxylon is saprobic on old stump of Corylus

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Xylohypha anamorphXylohypha dematiaceous anamorph of Xylohypha nigrescens is saprobic on wood of Corylus

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Known predators

Corylus Cornus, Corylus, Pryola, Aralia) is prey of:
fomes
canker
Insecta
Saperda
Dicera
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus
Evolomys
Bonasa umbellus
Lepus americanus
Clethrionomys
Spermophilus franklinii
Gastropoda
Homo sapiens
Leporidae

Based on studies in:
Canada: Manitoba (Forest)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 410 (1930).
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 406 (1930).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:161Public Records:79
Specimens with Sequences:138Public Species:18
Specimens with Barcodes:135Public BINs:0
Species:19         
Species With Barcodes:18         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Corylus

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Wikipedia

Hazel

The hazels (Corylus) are a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The genus is usually placed in the birch family Betulaceae,[1][2][3][4] though some botanists split the hazels (with the hornbeams and allied genera) into a separate family Corylaceae.[5][6] The fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut.

Hazels have simple, rounded leaves with double-serrate margins. The flowers are produced very early in spring before the leaves, and are monoecious, with single-sex catkins, the male catkins are pale yellow and 5–12 cm long, and the female ones are very small and largely concealed in the buds, with only the bright-red, 1- to 3-mm-long styles visible. The fruits are nuts 1–2.5 cm long and 1–2 cm diameter, surrounded by an involucre (husk) which partly to fully encloses the nut.[3]

The shape and structure of the involucre, and also the growth habit (whether a tree or a suckering shrub), are important in the identification of the different species of hazel.[3]

The pollen of hazel species, which are often the cause for allergies in late winter or early spring, can be identified under magnification (600X) by their characteristic granular exines bearing three conspicuous pores.[7]

Species[edit]

Corylus has 14–18 species. The circumscription of species in eastern Asia is disputed, with WCSP and the Flora of China differing in which taxa are accepted; within this region, only those taxa accepted by both sources are listed below.[3][8][9][10] The species are grouped as follows:

Several hybrids exist, and can occur between species in different sections of the genus, e.g. Corylus × colurnoides (C. avellana × C. colurna). The oldest confirmed hazel species is Corylus johnsonii found as fossils in the Ypresian-age rocks of Ferry County, Washington.[11]

Uses[edit]

The nuts of all hazels are edible. The common hazel is the species most extensively grown for its nuts, followed in importance by the filbert. Nuts are also harvested from the other species, but apart from the filbert, none is of significant commercial importance.[4]

A number of cultivars of the common hazel and filbert are grown as ornamental plants in gardens, including forms with contorted stems (C. avellana 'Contorta', popularly known as "Harry Lauder's walking stick" from its gnarled appearance); with weeping branches (C. avellana 'Pendula'); and with purple leaves (C. maxima 'Purpurea').

Hazel is a traditional material used for making wattle, withy fencing, baskets, and the frames of coracle boats. The tree can be coppiced, and regenerating shoots allow for harvests every few years.

Hazels are used as food plants by the larvae of various species of Lepidoptera.

Mythology and folklore[edit]

The Celts believed hazelnuts gave one wisdom and inspiration. There are numerous variations on an ancient tale that nine hazel trees grew around a sacred pool, dropping into the water nuts that were eaten by salmon (a fish sacred to Druids), which absorbed the wisdom. A Druid teacher, in his bid to become omniscient, caught one of these special salmon and asked a student to cook the fish, but not to eat it. While he was cooking it, a blister formed and the pupil used his thumb to burst it, which he naturally sucked to cool, thereby absorbing the fish's wisdom. This boy was called Fionn Mac Cumhail (Fin McCool) and went on to become one of the most heroic leaders in Gaelic mythology.[12]

"The Hazel Branch" from Grimms' Fairy Tales claims that hazel branches offer the greatest protection from snakes and other things that creep on the earth.

Gallery[edit]

Giresun Hazel Turkey

References[edit]

  1. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Corylus
  2. ^ Chen, Z.-D. et al. (1999). Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and paleobotany. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1168–1181. Available online.
  3. ^ a b c d Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  4. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  5. ^ Bean, W. J. (1976). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles 8th ed., vol. 1. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-1790-7.
  6. ^ Erdogan, V. & Mehlenbacher, S. A. (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of hazelnut species (Corylus, Corylacae) based on morphology and phenology. Sist. Bot. Dergisi 9: 83–100.
  7. ^ Nature 10, 355-355 (03 September 1874) | doi:10.1038/010355b0 (Letters to the Editor). Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  8. ^ WCSP: Corylus
  9. ^ Flora of China: Corylus
  10. ^ Flora of North America: Corylus
  11. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Manchester S.R. & Wehr W.C. (2003). "Corylus, Carpinus, and Palaeocarpinus (Betulaceae) from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain and Allenby Formations of Northwestern North America". International Journal of Plant Sciences 164 (5): 807–822. doi:10.1086/376816. 
  12. ^ Floriz: Mythology and Folklore of the Hazel Tree
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