Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is found throughout the Philippines (Poppe and Poppe 2011, Monteiro 2007, www.vianetconchology.com). This species is subject to taxonomic uncertainty and the distribution should be treated with caution.

The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2.

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Range Description

This species occurs throughout the entire Indo-Pacific Region apart from Hawaii and the Red Sea, ranging from the East coast of Africa to French Polynesia (Röckel et al. 1995).

The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Thick, heavy shell with flat spire, up to 13 cm. Colour cream with 2-3 axial bands of yellow or orange bands dotted with black. Habitat: in sand in and among coral in shallow water. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. (Richmond, 1997).
  • Drivas, J.; Jay, M. (1987). Coquillages de La Réunion et de l'Île Maurice. Collection Les Beautés de la Nature. Delachaux et Niestlé: Neuchâtel. ISBN 2-603-00654-1. 159 pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is reported to live in rock crevices and coral, inferred from the depth they are recovered from and the heavy scarring on all species present (Filmer 2005). Depth range from 10-25 m. However, the taxonomic uncertainty requires information be treated with caution. This species has been found to range in size from 70 to 127 mm (wrs-shells.com).

Systems
  • Marine
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species can be found from subtidal depths to 50 m, commonly in shallow waters. It lives in fine or coarse sand, in rubble and with vegetation of varying density (including very dense patches of seaweed). Adults can grow up to 170 mm, although they will generally be smaller than this. This species is vermivorous and feeds on polychaetes (Röckel et al. 1995).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 17 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 72
  Temperature range (°C): 23.011 - 28.146
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.050 - 0.801
  Salinity (PPS): 34.135 - 35.219
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.349 - 4.754
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 0.228
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 3.150

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 72

Temperature range (°C): 23.011 - 28.146

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.050 - 0.801

Salinity (PPS): 34.135 - 35.219

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.349 - 4.754

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 0.228

Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 3.150
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Conus litteratus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Conus litteratus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Duda, T.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Tagaro, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is found throughout the Philippines. There are large specimens suggested to be not rare in the southern Philippines but probably in other areas. It is reported to live in rock crevices and coral. There are no known threats known to this species. However, owing to taxonomic issues it is listed as Data Deficient.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Duda, T.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Tagaro, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species occurs across the entire tropical Indo-Pacific, from East Africa in the west to French Polynesia. It is very common across its wide distribution range. There are no known major threats and its distribution will coincide with marine protected areas. We listed this as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
There are large specimens suggested to be not rare in the southern Philippines but probably in other areas (G. T. Poppe pers. comm. 2011).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Population

Population
Very common across its wide distribution.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known material threats for this species and its deep water location suggests it is less subject to exploitation unless habitat is prone to excessive dredging.
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Major Threats
Owing to its wide range there are no obvious threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is probably scarce in the market and would benefit from further research into taxonomy, populations, distribution, habitat, level of off-take and threats (including the impact of fisheries) before any action plan can be formulated. There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species. Its distribution will coincide with marine protected areas.
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Wikipedia

Conus litteratus

Conus litteratus, common name the lettered cone, is a species of sophisticated predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snail, cone shells or cones.

Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled carefully or not at all.

This is an Indo-Pacific species.

Apical view of a shell of Conus litteratus

Contents

Life habits

This cone species hunts and eats marine worms.

References

Gallery

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