Overview

Brief Summary

Conus generalis, common name the general cone, is a species of sea snail. These snails are predatory and venomous. The color of the shell is orange-brown to chocolate, irregularly white-banded at the shoulder, in the middle, and at the base. These two or three bands are overlaid with zigzag or irregular chocolate-colored markings.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is widely distributed in the western and north-western Indian Ocean, ranging from Mozambique to central Natal and to the Red Sea, including Madagascar and southern India. It does not occur in the Maldives. The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2 (Röckel et al. 1995).
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Range Description

This species is found in from the south east coast of India, east to French Polynesia, north to Ryukyu Islands in Japan, and then south to the coast of Queensland, Australia. Hawaii is excluded from this range. It is also present around the Maldives (Röckel et al. 1995). Both the EOO and the AOO exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2. This species can be found from 2 to 240 m (A.J. Kohn and G.T. Poppe pers. comm. 2011) and is most common at 25 m in the Philippines.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

A thick, broad shell, up to 9 cm, with characteristic small, pointed spire and large body whorl. Colour cream or pink with with 2-3 brown or black, wide spiral bands. Aperture white. Habitat: various shallow substrates. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. (Richmond, 1997)
  • Dautzenberg, Ph. (1929). Contribution à l'étude de la faune de Madagascar: Mollusca marina testacea. Faune des colonies françaises, III(fasc. 4). Société d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales: Paris. 321-636, plates IV-VII pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs from the subtidal to about 6 m in depth, and has also been found to 30 m. It inhabits coral reefs where it can be found in sand, rubble and among weed growing beneath corals. Adults of the species will grow to approx 83 mm although they will typically be less than this (Röckel et al. 1995).

This is a worm hunting species, and its planktotrophic development explains its wide observed range (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. October 2011).

Systems
  • Marine
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found on sand, muddy sand, coral rubble in subtidal habitats where it is most common, but it has also been found to 240 m. Once mature, it can reach a size ranging from 50 to 104 mm (Röckel et al. 1995). It feeds on polychaetes (Kohn 2001).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 52 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 13 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 110
  Temperature range (°C): 23.011 - 25.491
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.232 - 2.089
  Salinity (PPS): 34.735 - 35.412
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.488 - 4.754
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.172
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.777 - 3.928

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 110

Temperature range (°C): 23.011 - 25.491

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.232 - 2.089

Salinity (PPS): 34.735 - 35.412

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.488 - 4.754

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.083 - 0.172

Silicate (umol/l): 0.777 - 3.928
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Conus generalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Raybaudi-Massilia, G.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Veldsman, S.G.

Contributor/s

Justification

This species is widely distributed in the western and north-western Indian Ocean, ranging from Mozambique to central Natal and to the Red Sea, including Madagascar and southern India. Its shell is plentiful and low cost in the collector market indicating reasonable abundance in the wild. It is unlikely to be affected by any major threats and is therefore assessed as Least Concern.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Kohn, A.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Poppe, G.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is found in from the south east coast of India, east to French Polynesia, north to Ryukyu Islands in Japan, and then south to the coast of Queensland, Australia. Hawaii is excluded from this range. It is also present around the Maldives. This species is widespread, common and locally abundant. There are no major threats, therefore it is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Population

Population
This species is common and locally abundant (G.T. Poppe pers. comm. 2011).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats

This species is widely distributed and there are currently no known threats affecting the global population of this species. Localized threats from pollution and development may have some impacts in small parts of this species' range (S. Veldsman pers. comm. October 2011).

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Major Threats
There are no known threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species. It is found in marine protected areas within its range.
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Wikipedia

Conus generalis

Conus generalis Linnaeus, C., 1767

Conus generalis, common name the general cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.[2]

These snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled carefully or not at all.

Contents

Description

The size of an adult shell varies between 45 mm and 105 mm. The spire is rather plane, with a characteristic, small, acuminate, raised apex. The color of the shell is orange-brown to chocolate, irregularly white-banded at the shoulder, in the middle, and at the base. These two or three bands are overlaid with zigzag or irregular chocolate-colored markings. The aperture is white.[3]

Distribution

This species occurs in the Red Sea, in the Indian Ocean along Madagascar, Mauritius and Tanzania; in the Indo-West Pacific along Indonesia and the Philippines and from Northwest Australia to French Polynesia and the Ryukyu Islands; in the Central Indian Ocean along the Maldives.

References

  1. ^ Linnaeus, C., 1767. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, 12th ed., 1, pt. 2
  2. ^ a b Conus generalis Linnaeus, 1767.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 24 July 2011.
  3. ^ George Washington Tryon, Manual of Conchology vol. VI, p. 34
  • Dautzenberg, Ph. (1929). Mollusques testacés marins de Madagascar. Faune des Colonies Francaises, Tome III
  • Filmer R.M. (2001). A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae 1758 - 1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 388pp.
  • Tucker J.K. (2009). Recent cone species database. September 4, 2009 Edition
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