Overview

Brief Summary

Conus ebraeus, also known as the Hebrew cone, is a species of sea snail whose shell has a pattern of black and white squares. It is one of the most widely distributed members of its genus and occurs in shallow water, tropical regions throughout the Indo-West and eastern Pacific, from the Red Sea to the shores of the Americas. Conus ebraeus lives near rocky shores, often under boulders. Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in the entire Indo-Pacific, excluding the Red Sea, and also off the west coast of Panama and Costa Rica (Röckel et al. 1995). Both the EOO and AOO exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Habitat: rocky shores (Ruwa, 1984). Easily recognisable small, squat shell, up to 5 cm, with a rounded, short spire. Colour white with a pattern of blackish squares. Aperture with coloured bands. Habitat: lower eulittoral, often under boulders. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. (Richmond, 1997). Tropical Indo-Pacific, also in Australia in Kalk (1958).
  • Drivas, J.; Jay, M. (1987). Coquillages de La Réunion et de l'Île Maurice. Collection Les Beautés de la Nature. Delachaux et Niestlé: Neuchâtel. ISBN 2-603-00654-1. 159 pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in intertidal and subtidal habitats to about 3 m, on sand, among or beneath dead corals and on coral reef and limestone platforms. It feeds on polychaetes. Once mature it can reach a size ranging from 25 to 62 mm (Röckel et al. 1995).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 9 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 67
  Temperature range (°C): 23.160 - 28.394
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.146 - 3.658
  Salinity (PPS): 33.721 - 35.125
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.131 - 4.700
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 0.526
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.983 - 7.726

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 67

Temperature range (°C): 23.160 - 28.394

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.146 - 3.658

Salinity (PPS): 33.721 - 35.125

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.131 - 4.700

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.071 - 0.526

Silicate (umol/l): 0.983 - 7.726
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Conus ebraeus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 132
Specimens with Barcodes: 134
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Conus ebraeus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 114 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACATTGTATATTTTATTTGGGATATGGTCCGGTTTGGTCGGAACTGCCCTG---AGATTGCTAATTCGTGCAGAGTTAGGACAACCGGGAGCCCTACTTGGAGAT---GATCAGCTGTATAACGTAATTGTAACAGCCCATGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTCTTAGTGATACCTATGATGATTGGTGGTTTCGGAAACTGACTAGTACCGCTAATA---TTAGGAGCTCCAGATATGGTATTTCCTCGGTTAAACAATATAAGTTTCTGGTTACTTCCTCCTGCACTTTTACTTCTCTTATCTTCAGCCGCGGTAGAGAGTGGAGTGGGTACAGGATGAACGGTGTATCCACCTCTATCAGGAAACTTAGCACATGCCGGTGGGTCAGTAGATCTG---GCAATTTTTTCTTTACACCTTGCCGGGGTTTCTTCTATTTTAGGAGCGGTGAATTTTATTACTACAATTATTAATATACGATGACAAGGGATAAAATTTGAACGTCTTTCGCTATTTGTGTGGTCAGTAAAAATTACAGCTATTTTACTTTTACTGTCTCTTCCTGTGTTAGCGGGG---GCAATTACGATGCTTTTGACAGATCGAAATTTTAATACTGCCTTCTTCGACCCAGCAGGAGGTGGTGATCCAATCTTGTATCAGCACTTG
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Genomic DNA is available from 1 specimen with morphological vouchers housed at Museums and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Kohn, A.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Poppe, G.

Contributor/s

Justification

This species occurs in the entire Indo-Pacific, excluding the Red Sea, and also off the west coast of Panama and Costa Rica. This is a wide ranging species and is common throughout its range. There are no known major threats, therefore it is listed as Least Concern.

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Population

Population
This species is common throughout its range, often the most common Conus in some areas (A.J. Kohn pers. comm. 2011).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species. It probably occurs in marine protected areas throughout its range.
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Wikipedia

Conus ebraeus

Conus ebraeus, common name the black-and-white cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.[3]

Contents

Description [edit]

Conus ebraeus has easily recognisable small, squat shell, with a rounded, short spire.[3]

The shell is white, with a pattern of blackish squares,[3] sometimes rose-tinted, with three or four revolving bands composed of irregular longitudinal dark chocolate or nearly black markings; these markings also ornament the slightly coronated spire.[4] The aperture is white with clouded bands corresponding with the exterior markings.[4] The surface is more or less striate throughout, but striae are more prominent towards the dark stained base.[4]

The width of the shell of type specimen is 19 mm.[1] The height of the shell of type specimen is 28 mm.[1]

The height of the shell varies from 25 mm to 62 mm.[1]

Distribution [edit]

Conus ebraeus is one of the most widely distributed members of its genus and occurs in shallow water, tropical regions throughout the Indo-West and eastern Pacific, from the Red Sea to the shores of the Americas.[5]

The type locality is India.[1]

Localities include:

Habitat [edit]

Conus ebraeus lives near rocky shores,[3] lower eulittoral, often under boulders.[3]

Feeding habits [edit]

Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled carefully or not at all.

While the focal prey of Conus ebraeus are eunicid polychaetes (i.e., members of the genus Palola) at most locations in the Indo-West Pacific (e.g., the Maldives, eastern Indian Ocean, Great Barrier Reef, Okinawa and Guam), at Hawaii and the Seychelles this species predominantly preys on nereid polychaetes.[5] These results suggest that Conus ebraeus exhibits geographic variation in dietary specialization.[5]

Prey of Conus ebraeus include Perinereis helleri (family Nereididae), Palola sp., Eunice cariboea and Lysidice collaris (all three from family Eunicidae).[5]

Gallery [edit]

References [edit]

This article incorporates CC-BY-2.5 text from the reference [5] and CC-BY-SA-3.0 text from the reference [3] and public domain text from the reference.[4]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Conus ebraeus Linnaeus, 1758.". The Conus Biodiversity website, accessed 28 March 2010.
  2. ^ Linnaeus C. (1758). Systema Naturae, 10th ed., 1.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Conus ebraeus Linnaeus, 1758.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 27 March 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d Tryon G. W. (1884). Manual of Conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species. Volume 6. Conidae, Pleurotomidae. page 20. Plate 5, figure 75-77, Plate 37, figure 13. (Cited as Conus hebraeus.) Plate 2, figure 25.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Duda T.F. Jr., Chang D., Lewis B. D. & Lee T. (2009). "Geographic Variation in Venom Allelic Composition and Diets of the Widespread Predatory Marine Gastropod Conus ebraeus". PLoS ONE 4(7): e6245. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006245
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