Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in the Indo-West Pacific from eastern Africa and Madagascar and the Comoros Islands, east to Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Spratly Islands, as far north as Japan, and southeast to French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.
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General distribution: tropical, Indo-west Pacific Ocean, depth range 5-30 m.(Rowe & Gates, 1995); in the tropical Indian Ocean known from the Glorieuses Islands; in the tropical Pacific, from northern Australia to Enewetok, Guam, the China Sea, and the Ryukyu Islands southwards to New Caledonia, Fiji, and the Society Islands (Conand, 1998). Recorded in Australia in Clark & Rowe (1971) and Rowe & Gates (1995). Ecology: benthic, inshore, detritus feeder, deposit feeder (Rowe & Gates, 1995).
  • Clark, A.M. and F.W.E. Rowe. (1971). Monograph of Shallow-water Indo-West Pacific Echinoderms. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History): London. x + 238 p. + 30 pls.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a rare species mostly found at depths between 10 to 30 m. It generally occurs on hard ground, large rubble and coral sand patches, on reef slopes, outer lagoon and near passes.

Little is known about this species' biology.

Generation length is unknown for this species. Body size is not a good indicator of age or longevity. There is some indication, however, that many echinoderms do not go through senescence, but simply regenerate. Therefore generation length cannot be estimated, but is assumed to be greater than several decades in a natural, un-disturbed environment.


Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 23 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7.5 - 69.7
  Temperature range (°C): 24.872 - 26.692
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.732 - 2.089
  Salinity (PPS): 35.037 - 35.361
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.541 - 4.685
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.121 - 0.162
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 1.055

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7.5 - 69.7

Temperature range (°C): 24.872 - 26.692

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.732 - 2.089

Salinity (PPS): 35.037 - 35.361

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.541 - 4.685

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.121 - 0.162

Silicate (umol/l): 0.869 - 1.055
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Thelenota anax

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AGACGCTGACTCTTTTCTACAAAACACAAGGACATCGGAACCCTTTATCTAATTTTTGGAGCATGAGCAGGAATGGTTGGAACAGCCATG---AGAGTTATTATCCGAACAGAACTAGCTCAGCCAGGATCTCTTCTTCAAGAC---GACCAAATTTACAACGTCGTAGTAACAGCCCACGCCTTAGTTATGATATTCTTCATGGTCATGCCAATTATGATAGGGGGTTTTGGTAACTGACTTATACCATTAATG---ATAGGAGCCCCAGACATGGCCTTTCCTCGTATGAACAACATGAGATTTTGACTAATACCCCCATCTTTTATTCTACTTTTGGCTTCAGCGGGAGTAGAAAGAGGAGTTGGGACAGGGTGAACCATTTACCCACCATTATCAAGAAAAATAGCTCACGCAGGAGGATCAGTAGACCTA---GCAATTTTCTCCCTCCATTTAGCAGGAGCGTCTTCTATATTAGCCTCCATAAAATTTATAACAACAGTCATAAAAATGCGAACCCCTGGAGTAACATTTGACCGACTACCATTGTTTGTATGATCCGTCTTCATAACTGCAATACTTCTCCTGCTTAGTCTTCCAGTTTTAGCCGGA---GCAATAACCATGCTACTAACTGACCGAAACATAAAAACAACCTTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGGGGAGGTGATCCAATACTATTTCAACACTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGACATCCAGAAGTCTACATATTAATACTCCCAGGGTTTGGAATGATCTCACATATAATAGCCCACTATAGAGGAAAGCAA---GAACCATTTGGATACTTAGGAATGGTCTACGCAATGGTCGCCATAGGTATCTTAGGATTCCTTGTATGAGCCCACCACATG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Thelenota anax

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Conand, C., Purcell, S. & Gamboa, R.

Reviewer/s
Polidoro, B., Knapp, L., Harwell, H. & Carpenter, K.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific and is uncommon. It is increasingly being targeted in fisheries as the stocks of other species decline. However, little information or data exists to be able to adequately assess the impact of fisheries on this species population. It is listed as Data Deficient. More research is needed on this species' biology.
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Population

Population
This species is considered uncommon.

In PNG from 1992 to 2006, densities decreased from 1 to 0.7 individuals per hectare (Kaly et al. 2007).

This species is heavily exploited in Indonesia (Tuwo 2004). Recent surveys in French Polynesia only found 2 individuals (Kronen et al. 2008). In Samoa, this species was not found in any surveys (Vunisea et al. 2008). In Tonga, up to 20 individuals per hectare were found in 2001-2008 (Friedman et al. 2009).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is the largest of the commercial species, but with a relatively low value. It was previously considered non-commercial, but has increasingly become an important commercial species in the past 20 years, as stocks of other species have been depleted. It is not as palatable as other species, so it is less sought after compared to other species, with some exceptions such as in the Philippines and Indonesia.

This species is of low value and is unexploited in the Torres Straight (Skewes 2004).

This species was rarely harvested until a few years ago, being generally found at low densities. It is now being collected by skin diving or using diving gear, making the populations potentially very vulnerable to overexploitation. The processed product is probably of low to moderate commercial value and the exploitation of this species should be avoided.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known species-specific conservation measures for this species at this time. This species may be present in some marine protected areas within its range.
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