Ecology

Migration

Alien species

The swim-bladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus lives as a parasite in the swim-bladder of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). This small round worm (nematode) originates from Southeast Asia. In the 1980's the nematode reached Europe via infected eels imported for consumption. Uncontrolled restocking of eels allowed for a further spread of the swim-bladder nematode. The first Belgian observations date from 1985. Since then, the parasite is very common in both wild eels and eel farms. Infected eels don't grow well and are overall less fit. The swim-bladder nematode nematode is considered to be a possible reason for the decline in eel stocks.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
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Alien species

De zwemblaasworm Anguillicoloides crassus leeft als parasiet in de zwemblaas van de Europese paling Anguilla anguilla. Deze kleine rondworm (Nematoda) komt oorspronkelijk uit Zuidoost Azië. In de jaren ’80 kwam de zwemblaasworm in Europa terecht door het importeren van besmette palingen voor consumptie. De verdere verspreiding van de zwemblaasworm werd via uitzettingen van deze Japanse palingen in de hand gewerkt. De eerste Belgische waarnemingen dateren van 1985. Sindsdien is de parasiet zeer algemeen in zowel de wilde exemplaren, als in de palingkwekerijen. Geïnfecteerde palingen groeien minder goed en zijn algemeen minder fit. De zwemblaasworm wordt vermeld als een van de mogelijke oorzaken van de achteruitgang van de palingbestanden.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Anguillicola crassus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 419 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTATCTTTTTTAATTCGTTTTGAGCTTTCTATACCGGGCCTTTTGTTAGGTGAT---GGGCAATTATATAATTGTATTATTACGTCTCATGCAATTGTTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTAATACCTACTATAATTGGGGGTTTTGGTAATTGAGTTTTACCTTTAATG---TTAGGGGCTCCTGATATAAGTTTTCCTCGTTTAAATAATTTAAGATTTTGGTTATTGCCTGTTTCAATATTTTTAATTTTAGATTCTTTTTTTGTTGGGACTGGTTGTGGTACTAGTTGGACTATTTACCCTCCTTTGAGT---GTTATTGGCCATTCTGGTATAAGTGTTGATCTC---GCTATTTTAAGTCTTCATTGTGCTGGTGTGAGTTCTATTTTAGGAGCTATTAATATTATAACTACGACAAAGAATCTTCGTAGGAGATCTATTACTCTAGAACATATGAGGTTGTTTGTTTGGTCTGTTTTTGTAACTGTTTTTTTGTTATTACTTTCTTTACCTGTACTAGCAGGA---GCTATTACTATGCTGTTGATGGATCGTAATCTTAATAC
-- end --

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anguillicola crassus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 419
Specimens with Barcodes: 419
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Anguillicoloides crassus

Anguillicoloides crassus[2][3] is a parasitic nematode worm that lives in the swimbladders of eels (Anguilla spp.) and appears to spread easily among eel populations after introduction to a body of water. It is considered to be one of the threats to the sustainability of populations of European eel (Anguilla anguilla). It was introduced to the European continent in the 1980s, where it was reported independently from Germany and Italy in 1982, having probably been introduced from Taiwan.[4] It is thought to have reached England in 1987 from continental Europe. It is a natural parasite of the Japanese eel in its native range.

The life cycle of Anguillicoloides crassus begins when the adult nematode releases thousands of eggs in the eel's swimbladder. The eggs pass through the eel's digestive tract and the larvae emerge in the water and settle onto the substrate. They are ingested by their intermediate host, which is often a copepod or other crustacean but may also be a fish. The nematode larva reaches its infective stage within this intermediate host. The host is eaten by an eel, and the nematode finds its way from the eel's digestive tract to its swimbladder. An eel with an advanced parasite load shows symptoms such as bleeding lesions and swimbladder collapse. The eel becomes more susceptible to disease, its rate of growth slows, and if the infestation is severe enough, it may die. Since the swimbladder is the buoyant organ which allows the eel to swim, a severe parasite infestation can hamper its ability to reach its spawning grounds.

The state of being colonized by Anguillicola nematodes is termed anguillicolosis.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kuwahara A., Niimi H. & Itagaki H. (1974). "Studies on a nematode parasitic in the air bladder of the eel I. Descriptions of Anguillicola crassa sp. n. (Philometridea, Anguillicolidae)". Japanese Journal for Parasitology 23(5): 275–279. OpenURL
  2. ^ E. G. Heitlinger, D. R. Laetsch, U. Weclawski, Y. S. Han & H. Taraschewski (2009). "Massive encapsulation of larval Anguillicoloides crassus in the intestinal wall of Japanese eels". Parasites & Vectors 2: 48. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-2-48. PMID 19832983. 
  3. ^ WoRMS (2010). "Anguillicoloides crassus (Kuwahara, Niimi & Itagaki, 1974)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved August 13, 2010. 
  4. ^ Sébastien Wielgoss, Horst Taraschewski, Axel Meyer & Thierry Wirth (2008). "Population structure of the parasitic nematode Anguillicola crassus, an invader of declining North Atlantic eel stocks" (PDF). Molecular Ecology 17 (15): 3478–3495. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03855.x. PMID 18727770. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kennedy, C. R. (1993). Introductions, spread and colonization of new localities by fish helminth and crustacean parasites in the British Isles: a perspective and appraisal. Journal of Fish Biology, 43: 287–301.
  • Kennedy, C. R., & Fitch, D. J. (1990). Colonisation, larval survival, and epidemiology of the nematode Anguillicola crassus, parasite in the eel Anguilla Anguilla in Britain. Journal of Fish Biology, 36: 117–131.
  • Koops, H., & Hartmann, F. (1989). Anguillicola infestations in Germany and in German eel imports. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 1: 41–45.
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