Overview

Brief Summary

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This is one of the important species in genus Rhizopus. It is recognized as black bread mold also because it generally attacks the bread and produces the black colored sporangium and spore. In fact it has the whole mycelium of black color.

Rhizopus stolonifer was first established in 1818 by the (Ehthrenberg) Vuillemin. Even he was the first person to discover the genus Rhizopus.

This fungus is worldwide in distribution. They are mostly saprophyte growing on various things like bread, jams, pickles, cheese, moist food stuffs, leather goods, soft fruits and vegetables.

This fungus is regarded as opportunist pathogen of human being as it causes the parlous disease called zygomycosis in which fungal infection are seen in face and oropharyngeal cavity.

This plant pathogen is responsible for causing disease in many vegetables and fruits and recognized as pathogen with wide host range

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© kshitij khatri

Supplier: kshitij khatri

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There are about 300 species of pin mold. These fungi get their name from their spore cases, which often look like a pin. Pin molds commonly grow on fruit, soil, and dung. Black bread mold is a hair-like mold. It thrives on bread and fruit.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Sebastian Velvez

Supplier: Life on Earth

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Physical Description

Morphology

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This fungus has the branched and filamentous hyphae generally without the cross wall (i.e. coenocytes).The presence of root like rhizoid and stolon is the characteristic feature of this genus.

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Presense of recurved sporangiophore is the diagnostic morphological characteristics of genus Rhizopus.Rhizoids and stolons are hyaline to dark brown in color.

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The sporangiophores contain the dark, round sporangium that contains an apophsate columella and several oval, colorless or brown spores. Columella is the sterile portion in the sporangium which helps in exchanging nutrient between the active protoplasm below and the developing spores inside the upper portion of the sporangial head. Collarette is the remnant of sporangial wall when it dissolves. The columella is apophysate i.e. swollen.

They have the network of filament (hyphae) which penetrate inside the bread surface and extract the nutrient from it. They are multicellular with the cell wall made up of chitin

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Structure

Size

Shape

Color

Sprangia

82.7×196.7 mm

Globose/sub globose and flattened at base

First white then black

Sporangiophore

2.6~5.8×12.3~24.2 mm

Simple/long/smooth walled/non septate

Light brown

Sporangiospore

8.2~18.8 mm in diameter

irregular,irregular oval, elongate, angular

Brownish black

streaked

Columella

64.1×136.3 mm

Umbrella shape

Brownish gray

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© kshitij khatri

Supplier: kshitij khatri

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Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

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This versatile phytopathogen excretes the fungal peptic enzymes that degrade and dissolve the pectin contained in the middle lamella of the plant cells. (Miguel Gerardo Velázquez–del Valle, 2007)

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This pathogen can survive in wide range of temperature and relative humidity

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Initially affected part of fruit/vegetable gives the mild pleasant smell but as the yeast and bacteria move inside it the sour odor develops. Initial pleasant fleshy rot may attract fruit flies as well. After some days that vegetable/fruit becomes wet as the fungus start exuding whitish yellow liquid and whole fruit/vegetable is covered by the fungal mycelia with the black sporangia at the tip.

This pathogen has been identified as a Pre-emergence Seedling Disease Pathogen of Beta vulgaris causing damping off on it.

In cherry tomato, the fungus causes cracking on fruits following making wounds on it.Then infected parts on cracks become water soaked and disintegrate in watery rot.

Head rot caused due to this fungus have caused the reduction in the seed yield and quality of sunflower seed.

This fungus has caused the initial flower and flower bud rot which lead to the premature death of the fruits and other infected parts in Rauvolfia serpentine in India.

“When warm, humid, wet weather coincide with the flowering and fruiting season, rhizopus rot cause the total loss of fruit in jackfruit trees.”(Scot Nelson, 2005).It is the most important post harvest disease in sweet potato as well.

  • Yildirim,I.,Turhan,H.,Ozgen,B.(2010) The effect of head rot disease (Rhizopus stolonifer) on sunflower genotype at two different growth stages, Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 15(1),pp.94-98.
  • Kwon,J.H.,Lee,C.J.(2006) Rhizopus Soft Rot on Pear (Pyrus serotina) Caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Korea, Korean Society of Microbiology,4(3),pp.151-153.
  • Kwon,J.,H.,Kang,S.,W. and Park,C.,S.(2001) Rhizopus Soft Rot on Cherry Tomato Caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Korea, Korean Society of Microbiology, 29(3),pp.176-178
  • Agrios,G.N.(1997)Plant Pathology.California.London.Burlington: A Harcourt Science and Technology Company
  • Shukla, R.S., Alam,M.,Sattar, A., and Singh,H.N.(2006)First report of Rhizopus stolonifer causing inflorescence and fruit rot of Rauvolfia serpentina in India, EPPO Bulletin,36(1),pp.11-13.
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Ecology

Associations

Animal / dung saprobe
sporangiophore of Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer is saprobic in/on dung or excretions of dung of Herbivores
Other: minor host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer infects and damages stored fruit of Malus domestica

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Foodplant / pathogen
Rhizopus stolonifer infects and damages fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Rhizopus stolonifer infects and damages fruit of Pyrus communis sens. str.

Foodplant / pathogen
Rhizopus stolonifer infects and damages fruit of Magnoliopsida

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

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This fungus has two form of reproduction. In asexual reproduction, bulbous black sporangia are produced at the tips of upright hyphae which contain numerous haploid sporangiospore.

This is heterothallic species (Schipper 1984) which mean it needs the hyphae of opposite mating type for the sex to occur. During sexual reproduction,  when haploid hyphae of different mating types are in close proximity to each other it gives rise to the formation of the diploid zygospore. It involves the two process plasmogamy ( fusion of cytoplasm) and karyogamy (fusion of nuclei)  respectively.

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Zygospores are dormant overwintering structure in unfavorable environmental condition with the thick cell wall. They germinate producing a sporangium or vegetative hyphae on the commencement of favorable environment. Meiosis during the germination of zygosporangium makes the spores or hyphae haploid.

Generally sporangiospore either produced by the germination of zygospore or asexually produced by sporangia attack on the host surface. Then it starts growing on it penetrating its mycelia. This invasion of pathogen causes the maceration of healthy tissue and symptoms of watery rot start appearing

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Conservation

Management

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Haphazardly handled fruit/vegetable during harvesting, transportation and storage are susceptible to this fungus. Thus proper handling becomes imperative.

Peppermint and sweet basil volatile oils extracted from leaves are some of the potential natural biocide against the post harvest decay of the peach. (Ziedan and Farrag)

“Host eradication (rouging) and crop rotation are some effective cultural practices against this pathogen. Spacing plants properly in the field or greenhouse prevents the creation of high humidity conditions on plant surfaces and inhibits infection” (Agrios, 1997).

Tridax procumbens, Venonia amygdalina, chromolaena odorata and Azadirachta indica are some the biocontrol agents who’s aqueous and ethanolic extract has the profound inhibitory action on the mycelial growth of this kind of rot fungus.

 

Benomyl, Thiabendazole, Dichloron, and Imazalil are some examples of postharvest chemical treatments that are presently used to control this fungus.

Fruits treated with hot water dip at 50°C for 3 min + bioagent Debaryomyces hansenii has been beneficial for the minimum incidence and infected area of Rhizopus stolonifer. (Dinesh singh and Gautam Mandal, 2006)

Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp are some of the bacteria that have the profound effect on the on the inhibition of Rhizopus stolonifer associated with barley grains. Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 is found effective for pear soft rot.

 

Fumigation of with acetic acid and Combined hot water and radiation treatments are found efficient for the decay control in stone fruit and tomato respectively.

 

  • Alhubge, T.M., Ashoor, A.A.(2006)Biological Control with the bacteria Bacillus Subtilis, Micrococcus spp.,Corynebacterium spp., against Rhizopus stolonifer associated with barley(Hordeum Vulgare) grains in Misurata,Libya, Ninth Arab Congress of Plant Protection, pp. E213-E214.
  • Shukla, R.S., Alam,M.,Sattar, A., and Singh,H.N.(2006)First report of Rhizopus stolonifer causing inflorescence and fruit rot of Rauvolfia serpentina in India, EPPO Bulletin,36(1),pp.11-13.
  • Ziedan,S.H.E.,Farrang,E.S.H.(2008) Fumigation of Peach Fruits with Essential Oils to Control Postharvest Decay, Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 4(5), pp.512-519.
  • Kwon,J.H.,Lee,C.J.(2006) Rhizopus Soft Rot on Pear (Pyrus serotina) Caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Korea, Korean Society of Microbiology,4(3),pp.151-153.
  • Singh, D.,Mandal,G.(2012) Improved control of Rhizopus stolonifer - induced storage rot of peach with hot water and antagonistic yeast, Debaryomyces hansenii,Indian Phytopathological society,59(2),pp. 168-173.
  • Yildirim,I.,Turhan,H.,Ozgen,B.(2010) The effect of head rot disease (Rhizopus stolonifer) on sunflower genotype at two different growth stages, Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 15(1),pp.94-98.
  • Kwon,J.,H.,Kang,S.,W. and Park,C.,S.(2001) Rhizopus Soft Rot on Cherry Tomato Caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Korea, Korean Society of Microbiology, 29(3),pp.176-178.
  • Ijato, J. Y ., Adebiyi, A. O. and Ijadunola J.A.(2011) Antifungal effects of four tropical plant aqueous and ethanol extracts on post harvest rot of tomato(Lycopersicum esculentum) in Ado–Ekiti, Nigeria, Newyork Science Journal,4(1),pp.64-68.
  • Barkai-Golan, R.,Padova, R., Ross, I., Lapidot, M.,Davidson, H.,Copel, A.(1993), Combined hot water and radiation treatments to control decay of tomato fruits, Scientia Horticulturae,5(2), pp. 101-105.
  • Sholberg, Peter L., Gaunce, Alan P.(1996), Fumigation of stonefruit with acetic acid to control postharvest decay, Crop Protection,15(8),pp.681-686.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

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This pathogen causes the huge loss in the agriculture commodity there by creating the problem for human being and is the cause of zygomycosis in human being. In the flip side, it fungus has some good quality that can be utilized for benefit of human kind. It can produce transform the steroid hormone (e.g. progesterone) so it is used to make the birth control pill which is used by women to prevent the pregnancy.

Prinsen Geerligs in 1985 found that this mold can be used to ferment the tempeh. Furthermore, it can be used for the commercial production of alcohol, organic acid, fumaric acid and cortisone.

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Risks

This versatile phytopathogen excretes the fungal peptic enzymes that degrade and dissolve the pectin contained in the middle lamella of the plant cells. (Miguel Gerardo Velázquez–del Valle, 2007)

This eventually leads to the colonization of agricultural products like vegetable and fruits which is recognized as the soft rot. This pathogen can survive in wide range of temperature and relative humidity

Initially affected part of fruit/vegetable gives the mild pleasant smell but as the yeast and bacteria move inside it the sour odor develops. Initial pleasant fleshy rot may attract fruit flies as well. After some days that vegetable/fruit becomes wet as the fungus start exuding whitish yellow liquid and whole fruit/vegetable is covered by the fungal mycelia with the black sporangia at the tip.

This pathogen has been identified as a Pre-emergence Seedling Disease Pathogen of Beta vulgaris causing damping off on it.

In cherry tomato, the fungus causes cracking on fruits following making wounds on it.Then infected parts on cracks become water soaked and disintegrate in watery rot.

Head rot caused due to this fungus have caused the reduction in the seed yield and quality of sunflower seed.

This fungus has caused the initial flower and flower bud rot which lead to the premature death of the fruits and other infected parts in Rauvolfia serpentine in India.

“When warm, humid, wet weather coincide with the flowering and fruiting season, rhizopus rot cause the total loss of fruit in jackfruit trees.”(Scot Nelson, 2005).It is the most important post harvest disease in sweet potato as well.

  • Yildirim,I.,Turhan,H.,Ozgen,B.(2010) The effect of head rot disease (Rhizopus stolonifer) on sunflower genotype at two different growth stages, Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 15(1),pp.94-98.
  • Kwon,J.H.,Lee,C.J.(2006) Rhizopus Soft Rot on Pear (Pyrus serotina) Caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Korea, Korean Society of Microbiology,4(3),pp.151-153.
  • Kwon,J.,H.,Kang,S.,W. and Park,C.,S.(2001) Rhizopus Soft Rot on Cherry Tomato Caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in Korea, Korean Society of Microbiology, 29(3),pp.176-178
  • Agrios,G.N.(1997)Plant Pathology.California.London.Burlington: A Harcourt Science and Technology Company
  • Shukla, R.S., Alam,M.,Sattar, A., and Singh,H.N.(2006)First report of Rhizopus stolonifer causing inflorescence and fruit rot of Rauvolfia serpentina in India, EPPO Bulletin,36(1),pp.11-13.
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Wikipedia

Black bread mold

Black bread mold!<-- This template has to be "warmed up" before it can be used, for some reason -->

Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold) is a widely distributed thread-like Mucoralean mold. Commonly found on bread surfaces, it takes food and nutrients from the bread and causes damage to the surface where it lives.

Asexual spores are formed within sporangia, which break to release the spores mature. Germination of these spores forms the haploid hyphae of a new mycelium. R. stolonifer grows rapidly at temperatures between 15 and 30°C.[2]

Rhizopus stolonifer is a heterothallic species (Schipper 1984), in that sexual reproduction happens only when opposite mating types (designated + and -) come in contact. Successful mating results in the formation of durable zygospores at the point of contact. Subsequently, the zygospore germinates and forms a sporangiophore whose sporangium contains both + and - haploid spores. There are three varieties: R. stolonifer var. stolonifer produces straight, erect sporangiophores, whereas those of R. stolonifer var. lyococcos are curved.[2] A closely related species, Rhizopus sexualis, differs primarily in being homothallic (self-compatible).

Contents

Distribution and habitat

Rhizopus stolonifer has a cosmopolitan distribution. It is capable of causing opportunistic infections of humans (zygomycosis). It is most commonly found growing on bread and soft fruits such as bananas and grapes. Because its spores are common in the air, it can be grown within a few days by keeping moistened pieces of bread in an enclosed, humid environment.

See also

References

  1. ^ Tree of Life Web Project7
  2. ^ a b Schipper, M. A. A. 1984. A revision of the genus Rhizopus. I. The Rh. stolonifer-group and Rh. oryzae. CBS Studies in Mycology 25:1-19.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

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Kingdom:

Fungi 

Phylum:

Zygomycota

Class:

Zygomycetes

Order:

Mucorales

Family:

Mucoraceae

Genus:

Rhizopus

Species:

Rhizopus stolonifer

Molecular phylogeny of this fungus has been studied through the rDNA sequencing which was found useful for the molecular identification of the species. Phylogenetic analysis

inferred from the D1/D2 region of LSU rDNA sequences gives us the idea that the genus Rhizopus contain four clades,  the R. lyococcus group, the R. stolonifer group, the R. oryzae group, and the R. microsporus group.

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