Overview

Brief Summary

Overview of the Genus

Cyrtopodium R. Br. has a Neotropical distribution
ranging from southern Florida to northern
Argentina. Despite the showy flowers of
many species, the genus has never received
much attention from orchid enthusiasts and cultivators.
Recently, with an ever increasing colonization
of the cerrado of central Brazil and
interest in orchids, many species have become
available and interest in the cultivation of
Cyrtopodium has grown. About 50 species are
known in the genus with the greatest concentration
found in Brazil. There are few specific works about the genus.
The Brazilian species were revised by Cogniaux
(1898–1902) in Flora Brasiliensis and Hoehne
(1942) in Flora Brasilica. Warming (1884) and
Menezes (2000) provided color illustrations and
observations about the habitat and ecological
preferences of many of the species. Sánchez
(1986) reviewed the species found inArgentina.
The species found along
the Andes, however, have never been revised.

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Taxonomy

A total of 116 names have been proposed in
the genus, 50 of which are currently accepted. Forty
names are synonyms in the genus, 21 are referable
to other genera, including Eulophia R. Br.
(14), Koellensteinia Rchb.f. (3), Otostylis Schltr.
(10), Eriopsis Lindl. (1), Tetramicra Lindl. (1),
and Oncidium Sw. (1). Presently there are 47
species and three subspecific taxa (one subspecies,
one variety, and one form), in the genus.
The identity of five accepted species in the list
is unclear and it is likely, with the exception of
Cyrtopodium intermedium Brade, that they are
conspecific with other, better known species.
Five names are placed in the category of nomina
nuda. Eight lectotypifications are proposed for
the species described by Schlechter, Velloso,
and Barbosa Rodrigues, whose types were lost.
One new synonym is proposed, Cyrtopodium
flavum Link & Otto ex Rchb., and is recognized
as the accepted name for the widespread species
formerly known as C. paranaensis Schltr. and
C. polyphyllum (Vell.) F. Barros.
Nineteen new and accepted species were
described in the genus in the last 15 years, 11 of
them from central Brazil, five from southern,
southeastern, and northern Brazil, and three
from northern South America (Venezuela,
Ecuador, and Colombia). The systematic botanical
exploration of the cerrado started only in the
1960’s and among the small terrestrial orchids,
many species have been poorly collected and
overlooked. Only because of recent field and
taxonomic work in the region were these species
discovered and described. It is likely that other
new species are still to be discovered.

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Distribution

Distribution of the Cyrtopodium Genus

Cyrtopodium is distributed from southern
Florida, the West Indies, and Mexico to southern
Brazil and Argentina. Brazil, with 39 species, is
the country with the highest number of species,
followed by Venezuela and Bolivia (9 species
each), Paraguay (6), and Argentina, Colombia,
Guyana, and Suriname (4 each). In Brazil, the
center of diversity of the genus is the cerrado
vegetation, where 29 species are found. The cerrado
is a species-rich savanna vegetation covering
2 million km2 of Central Brazil (Ratter et al.,
1997). One particularly species-rich area located
at the core region of the cerrado vegetation (the
Federal District), occupying an area of 5783
km,2 has 18 species (Batista and Bianchetti,
2003). Of the 39 species from Brazil, 25 are
restricted to the country; 13 of the 29 occurring
in the cerrado are restricted to this particular
habitat. Some species are known from just a few
or single areas, but narrow endemics are few.
Venezuela has two species restricted to the
country and El Salvador has one form. One
species, Cyrtopodium cardiochilum, is of
unknown origin and distribution, but it is probably
conspecific with C. glutiniferum, which is
restricted to Brazil.

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Ecology

General Ecology

Ecology of the Cyrtopodium genus

Most of the species in the genus are terrestrial
(33 species), some are epiphytic (7), and
others strictly lithophytic (5), while a few can
grow as terrestrials as well as lithophytes (3).
The lithophytic and epiphytic species have
invariably large, fusiform pseudobulbs bearing
articulate leaves (that is, leaves with an articulation
or abscission layer between the blade and
the sheath of the leaf). The terrestrial species
usually have smaller pseudobulbs that can be
either above- or completely underground, bearing
either articulate or non-articulate leaves. The
terrestrial species are predominantly from open
grasslands and occupy a broad range of habitats,
from dry rocky slopes to wet meadows. Most of
the species of the genus begin a new cycle of
growth and flower at the end of the dry season
and the beginning of the rainy season, usually
February to April in the northern hemisphere or
September and October in central and southeastern
Brazil. A new vegetative shoot grows
from the pseudobulb formed in the previous season.
The reproductive shoot emerges from the
base of the new vegetative shoot and, in most
species of the genus, it develops rapidly so that
when the plants are in full bloom the leaves are
only partially developed; they become fully
developed a few months after flowering. As the
dry season approaches, the leaves wither and are
eventually lost, and the plants become dormant.
This seasonal habit, combined with the buried
pseudobulbs of many species, renders locating
the terrestrial species in the field during the dormant
period a difficult task. Plants are most easily
found when in flower, in places recently
burned.
Though apparently not strictly necessary,
bush fires during the dry season dramatically
favor flowering of the terrestrial species from
open grasslands (Schomburgk, 1839; Menezes,
1994;). In many
species, the inflorescence emerges almost
immediately after a fire and the plants are in full
bloom a few weeks later. Flowering of the
species in unburned places is rare or infrequent,
and for some species, we have never seen plants
flowering at unburned sites. Cultivated plants
can flower without fire, although at a lower frequency
and only when exposed to hydric stress
and full sun. The buried pseudobulbs of many
of the terrestrial species from open grasslands
are apparently adaptive: their placement below
ground provides protection against the possibly
high temperatures found in grassland fires.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:5
Specimens with Sequences:6
Specimens with Barcodes:6
Species:3
Species With Barcodes:3
Public Records:5
Public Species:3
Public BINs:0
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Cyrtopodium

Cyrtopodium, often abbreviated Cyrt in horticulture, is a genus of more than 40 species of epiphytic and terrestrial orchids found from Florida and Mexico through Argentina.[1] Cyrtopodium is the only genus in the monotypic subtribe Cyrtopodiinae.[2]

The type species is C. andersonii, originally described in 1812 by A.B. Lambert as Cymbidium andersonii, and in 1813 used by Robert Brown to erect his new genus Cyrtopodium.[3]

List of species[edit]

Fruiting stand of Cyrtopodium andersonii
  1. Cyrtopodium aliciae L.Linden & Rolfe
  2. Cyrtopodium andersonii (Lamb. ex Andrews) R.Br. in W.T.Aiton
  3. Cyrtopodium blanchetii Rchb.f.
  4. Cyrtopodium braemii L.C.Menezes
  5. Cyrtopodium brandonianum Barb.Rodr.
  6. Cyrtopodium brunneum J.A.N.Bat. & Bianch.
  7. Cyrtopodium cachimboense L.C.Menezes
  8. Cyrtopodium caiapoense L.C.Menezes
  9. Cyrtopodium cipoense L.C.Menezes
  10. Cyrtopodium confusum L.C.Menezes, 2008
  11. Cyrtopodium cristatum Lindl.
  12. Cyrtopodium dusenii Schltr.
  13. Cyrtopodium eugenii Rchb.f. & Warm. in H.G.Reichenbach
  14. Cyrtopodium flavum (Nees) Link & Otto ex Rchb.
  15. Cyrtopodium fowliei L.C.Menezes
  16. Cyrtopodium gigas (Vell.) Hoehne
  17. Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi
  18. Cyrtopodium graniticum G.A.Romero & Carnevali
  19. Cyrtopodium hatschbachii Pabst
  20. Cyrtopodium holstii L.C.Menezes
  21. Cyrtopodium × intermedium Brade (C. gigas × C. glutiniferum)
  22. Cyrtopodium josephense Barb.Rodr.
  23. Cyrtopodium kleinii J.A.N.Bat. & Bianch.
  24. Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum J.A.N.Bat. & Bianch.
  25. Cyrtopodium latifolium Bianch. & J.A.N.Bat.
  26. Cyrtopodium linearifolium J.A.N.Bat. & Bianch.
  27. Cyrtopodium lissochiloides Hoehne & Schltr.
  28. Cyrtopodium longibulbosum Dodson & G.A.Romero
  29. Cyrtopodium macedoi J.A.N.Bat. & Bianch.
  30. Cyrtopodium macrobulbum (Lex.) G.A.Romero & Carnevali
  31. Cyrtopodium minutum L.C.Menezes
  32. Cyrtopodium naiguatae Schltr.
  33. Cyrtopodium pallidum Rchb.f. & Warm. in H.G.Reichenbach
  34. Cyrtopodium palmifrons Rchb.f. & Warm. in H.G.Reichenbach
  35. Cyrtopodium paludicola Hoehne
  36. Cyrtopodium paniculatum (Ruiz & Pav.) Garay
  37. Cyrtopodium parviflorum Lindl.
  38. Cyrtopodium pflanzii Schltr.
  39. Cyrtopodium poecilum Rchb.f. & Warm. in H.G.Reichenbach
  40. Cyrtopodium punctatum (L.) Lindl.
  41. Cyrtopodium saintlegerianum Rchb.f.
  42. Cyrtopodium schargellii G.A.Romero, Aymard & Carnevali
  43. Cyrtopodium triste Rchb.f. & Warm. in H.G.Reichenbach
  44. Cyrtopodium vernum Rchb.f. & Warm. in H.G.Reichenbach
  45. Cyrtopodium virescens Rchb.f. & Warm. in H.G.Reichenbach
  46. Cyrtopodium willmorei Knowles & Westc.
  47. Cyrtopodium witeckii L.C.Menezes, 2009
  48. Cyrtopodium withneri L.C.Menezes

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. & Rasmussen, F. eds. (2009). Genera Orchidacearum, Volume 5. Oxford Univ. Press.
  3. ^ Brown, Robert, in Aiton, William Townsend. 1813. Hortus Kewensis; or, a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. London (2nd ed.) 5: 216.
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