Overview

Comprehensive Description

Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-07

E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

Leptothorax HNS sp. BCA-9 of Johnson & Ward (2002).

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-03

E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

Leptothorax HNS sp. BCA-3 of Johnson & Ward (2002).

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-05

E1 [endemic to California], E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-02

E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

Leptothorax HNS sp. BCA-2 of Johnson & Ward (2002).

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-01

E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

Leptothorax sp. nr. silvestrii of Johnson & Ward(2002) HNS .

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Genus Temnothorax Mayr HNS

Most of the California species formerly placed in Leptothorax HNS have now been assigned to Temnothorax HNS (Bolton 2003). With at least twenty species in California, this is a diverse group showing wide variation in habitat and nest-site preferences. About a third of the species are arboreal. Most species appear to be generalist scavengers.

Species identification: keys in Wheeler and Wheeler (1986g) and Mackay (2000), in conjunction with the new synonymy introduced here (see above under “Taxonomic Changes”) and images on AntWeb. Additional references: Bolton (2003), Cole (1958c), Creighton (1950a), Deyrup and Cover (2004), Douwes and Stille (1987), Möglich (1979), Smith (1949e), Wheeler (1903d).

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: 37-37, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-08

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temn th rax Mayr HNS , 1861

Taxonomy. Although the genus Temnothorax HNS was synonymized with Leptothorax, HNS Temnothorax HNS was recently revived as an independent genus by Bolton (2003) and assigned to the Temnothorax HNS genus group of the tribe Formicoxenini HNS . Workers of Vietnamese species have the following features.

Worker monomorphic. Head subrectangular with round posterior corners; frontal carina and antennal scrobe absent; median portion of clypeus moderately convex anteriad, but never forming an anteriorly projecting shelf and never distinctly overlapping basal portion of mandibular blades; median clypeal carina weak but present; median clypeal seta absent; posteromedian portion of clypeus broadly inserted between frontal lobes; mandible triangular, with 5 teeth; palp formula 5,3; stipes of maxilla without a transverse crest at about its midlength; antenna 12-segmented, with 3-segmented antennal club; eye moderate to large in size; promesonotum in lateral view only weakly raised; promesonotal suture absent dorsally; metanotal groove shallowly impressed or almost absent dorsally; propodeal spine present; propodeal lobe roundly expanded; middle and hind tibiae without distinct spurs apically; petiole pedunculate, with low node, with a tiny process or angle on ventral face of anterior part of peduncle; gastral shoulder weakly present; sting simple, without any appendix apically.

Zootaxa 2878 © 2011 Magnolia Press ·

The worker of Temnothorax HNS is similar to that of Vo m b i s i d r i s and Cardiocondyla HNS (for distingusihed characters see under the latter genera).

Vietnamese species. Two species are known from Vietnam: sp. eg-1 (Sa Pa); sp. eg-2 (Tam Dao).

Bionomics. Temnothorax HNS species are rare in Vietnam where they have been collected around or above 1000 m alt. in northern Vietnam.

  • Eguchi, K., Viet, B. T., Yamane, S. (2011): Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera), Part I - Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmicinae. Zootaxa 2878, 1-61: 29-30, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/23462/23462.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-06

E1 [endemic to California], E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-09

E1 [endemic to California], E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-04

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Genus Temnothorax Mayr HNS

A recent comprehensive reorganization of the tribe Formicoxenini HNS by Bolton (2003) led to the division of Leptothorax HNS (sensu lato) into three genera: Leptothorax HNS , Nesomyrmex Wheeler HNS and Temnothorax HNS , of which the first and last are represented in California. Temnothorax HNS includes species previously placed in the subgenus Myrafant M. Smith HNS . A revision of the New World Myrafant HNS species by Mackay (2000) helped to improve the alphataxonomy of the group but various problems remain, particularly among the California species. In preparing a checklist of the ant fauna of this state it became necessary to tackle certain issues left unresolved by Mackay’s revision.

There is a rich Temnothorax HNS fauna in California, and in the adjacent Baja California peninsula (Johnson & Ward 2002). At least ten undescribed species occur in California, here indicated by code numbers ( Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-01 to CA-10). These are the subject of ongoing taxonomic study by Roy Snelling (LACM). In this paper I confine myself to clarifying the nomenclature and species limits of some of the described taxa.

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: 15-15, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Temnothorax HNS sp. CA-10

  • Ward, P. S. (2005): A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936, 1-68: null, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/21008/21008.pdf
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Taxonomy. Although the genus Temnothorax was synonymized with Leptothorax, Temnothorax was recently revived as an independent genus by Bolton (2003) and assigned to the Temnothorax genus group of the tribe Formicoxenini . Workers of Vietnamese species have the following features.

 

Worker monomorphic. Head subrectangular with round posterior corners; frontal carina and antennal scrobe absent; median portion of clypeus moderately convex anteriad, but never forming an anteriorly projecting shelf and never distinctly overlapping basal portion of mandibular blades; median clypeal carina weak but present; medianclypeal seta absent; posteromedian portion of clypeus broadly inserted between frontal lobes; mandible triangular, with 5 teeth; palp formula 5,3; stipes of maxilla without a transverse crest at about its midlength; antenna 12-segmented, with 3-segmented antennal club; eye moderate to large in size; promesonotum in lateral view only weakly raised; promesonotal suture absent dorsally; metanotal groove shallowly impressed or almost absent dorsally; propodeal spine present; propodeal lobe roundly expanded; middle and hind tibiae without distinct spurs apically; petiole pedunculate, with low node, with a tiny process or angle on ventral face of anterior part of peduncle; gastral shoulder weakly present; sting simple, without any appendix apically.

 

The worker of Temnothorax is similar to that of Vo m b i s i d r i s and Cardiocondyla (for distingusihed characters see under the latter genera).

 

Vietnamese species. Two species are known from Vietnam: sp. eg-1 (Sa Pa); sp. eg-2 (Tam Dao).

 

Bionomics. Temnothorax species are rare in Vietnam where they have been collected around or above 1000 m alt. in northern Vietnam.

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Notes:

 

Till recently Temnothorax was considered as a junior synonym of Leptothorax , but Bolton (2003) has divided the latter genus to two: Leptothorax (which includes the former subgenus Leptothorax s. str.) and Temnothorax (which includes, among others, the former subgenus Myrafant M. R. Smith). Therefore all authors before 2003 and some after this date have placed Temnothorax species in the genus Leptothorax (except of Temnothorax recedens ).

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Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena

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E1 [endemic to California], E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

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E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

 

Leptothorax sp. BCA-9 of Johnson & Ward (2002).

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E1 [endemic to California], E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

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E1 [endemic to California], E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

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E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

 

Leptothorax sp. BCA-3 of Johnson & Ward (2002).

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E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

 

Leptothorax sp. BCA-2 of Johnson & Ward (2002).

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E2 [endemic to California floristic province (Hickman, 1993)]

 

Leptothorax sp. nr. silvestrii of Johnson & Ward(2002) .

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Most of the California species formerly placed in Leptothorax have now been assigned to Temnothorax (Bolton 2003). With at least twenty species in California, this is a diverse group showing wide variation in habitat and nest-site preferences. About a third of the species are arboreal. Most species appear to be generalist scavengers.

 

Species identification: keys in Wheeler and Wheeler (1986g) and Mackay (2000), in conjunction with the new synonymy introduced here (see above under “Taxonomic Changes”) and images on AntWeb. Additional references: Bolton (2003), Cole (1958c), Creighton (1950a), Deyrup and Cover (2004), Douwes and Stille (1987), Möglich (1979), Smith (1949e), Wheeler (1903d).

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A recent comprehensive reorganization of the tribe Formicoxenini by Bolton (2003) led to the division of Leptothorax (sensu lato) into three genera: Leptothorax , Nesomyrmex Wheeler and Temnothorax , of which the first and last are represented in California. Temnothorax includes species previously placed in the subgenus Myrafant M. Smith . A revision of the New World Myrafant species by Mackay (2000) helped to improve the alphataxonomy of the group but various problems remain, particularly among the California species. In preparing a checklist of the ant fauna of this state it became necessary to tackle certain issues left unresolved by Mackay’s revision.

 

There is a rich Temnothorax fauna in California, and in the adjacent Baja California peninsula (Johnson & Ward 2002). At least ten undescribed species occur in California, here indicated by code numbers ( Temnothorax sp. CA-01 to CA-10). These are the subject of ongoing taxonomic study by Roy Snelling (LACM). In this paper I confine myself to clarifying the nomenclature and species limits of some of the described taxa.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax Q. sp. 01

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax sp. 01

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax ambiguus_cf

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax gallae_cf

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax CA02

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax CA03

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax JTL011

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax JTL015

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax JTL018

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax JTL007

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax ca01

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Temnothorax CA01

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 347
Specimens with Sequences: 298
Specimens with Barcodes: 160
Species: 49
Species With Barcodes: 47
Public Records: 112
Public Species: 10
Public BINs: 3
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Temnothorax

Temnothorax is a genus of ants in the subfamily Myrmicinae. It contains more than 350 species.[2]

Biology[edit]

The workers of Temnothorax species are generally small. Colonies are typically monogynous, although facultative polygyny has been documented in several species. Colony populations are usually quite small, often with less than 100 workers. However, several studies have found colonies of some species to be widely dispersed with several to many satellite nests. Many species are arboreal, living within hollow stems, old beetle or termite galleries, or in galls. Temnothorax species appear to be trophic generalists, feeding on a wide variety of scavenged items, including the elaiosomes of seeds. None have been documented to be active or aggressive predators.[3]

Phylogenetics[edit]

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies show that the genera Chalepoxenus, Myrmoxenus and Protomognathus are nested within Temnothorax, and that the latter is distinct from the more distantly related genera Formicoxenus, Leptothorax and Harpagoxenus. Species in these 'satellite' genera live as social parasites within the nests of other species of Temnothorax.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bolton, B. (2014). "Temnothorax". An online catalog of the ants of the world. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  2. ^ "Genus: Temnothorax". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Snelling, R.; Borowiec, M.; Prebus, M. (2014). "Studies on California ants: A review of the genus Temnothorax (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)". ZooKeys 372 (372): 27–89. doi:10.3897/zookeys.372.6039. PMC 3909803. PMID 24493957.  edit
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