The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
  • Frisby, H. 2001. Spirocera Lupi. Foster and Smtih Pet Education, 81: 221-222.
  • Gordon D. (ed) (2015). NZIB: New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity (version Jun 2009). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Hamir, A. 1987. Esophageal perforation and phyothorax associatated with Spirocerca lupi infestation ina dog. The Veterinary Record, 19: 276.
  • Harris, S. 1996. Spirocerca lupi infection in the dog: abberant migration. The Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 32: 125-30.
  • Nolan, T. 2004. "Spirocerca lupi Homepage" (On-line). Diagnosis of Veterinary Endoparasitic Infections. Accessed September 28, 2004 at
  • Pearse, V., J. Pearse. 1987. Living Invertebrae. Boston, Mass: Blackwell Publications.
  • Roberts, L., J. Janovy. 2000. Foundations of Parasitology. Boston: McGraw Hill.


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