Evolution and Systematics
The antennae of cockchafer beetles effectively sense signals via fan-like ends that increase the exposure of the sensillae to air.
"This cockchafer, or maybug, has short antennae ending in movable clubs which it can spread out like a fan, greatly increasing the area of sensillae exposed to the surrounding air. It feeds on nectar and other plant food and can even detect the presence of an underground mushroom as it flies over it. A heavy insect, it uses internal air sacs to help it stay airborne." (Foy and Oxford Scientific Films 1982:131)
Learn more about this functional adaptation.
- Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Locations of barcode samples
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||31||Public Records:||12|
|Specimens with Sequences:||21||Public Species:||1|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||11||Public BINs:||1|
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Once abundant throughout Europe and a major pest in the periodical years of "mass flight", it had been nearly eradicated in the middle of the 20th century through extensive use of pesticides and has even been locally exterminated in many regions. However, since an increase in regulation of pest control beginning in the 1980s, its numbers have started to grow again.
There are three species of European cockchafers:
- The common cockchafer, Melolontha melolontha
- The forest cockchafer, Melolontha hippocastani
- The large cockchafer, Melolontha pectoralis, which is very rare and occurs only in south-western Germany.
Imagines (adults) of the common cockchafer reach sizes of 25–30 mm; the forest cockchafer is a bit smaller (20–25 mm). The two species can best be distinguished by the form of their pygidium (the back end): it is long and slender in the common cockchafer, but shorter and knob-shaped at the end in the forest cockchafer. Both have a brown colour.
Male cockchafers have seven "leaves" on their antennae, whereas the females have only six.
The species M. pectoralis looks similar, but its pygidium is rounded. The cockchafer should not be confused with the similar European chafer (Rhizotrogus majalis), which has a completely different life cycle, nor with the June beetles (Phyllophaga spp.), which are native to North America, nor with the summer chafer (or "European June bug", Amphimallon solstitiale), which emerges in June and has a two-year life cycle. (All of these are Scarabaeidae, have white grubs, and are turf pests.)
Adults appear at the end of April or in May and live for about five to seven weeks. After about two weeks, the female begins laying eggs, which she buries about 10 to 20 cm deep in the earth. She may do this several times until she has laid between 60 and 80 eggs. The common cockchafer lays its eggs in fields, whereas the Forest Cockchafer stays in the vicinity of the trees. The preferred food for adults is oak leaves, but they will also feed on conifer needles.
The larvae, known as "white grubs" or "chafer grubs", hatch after four to six weeks. They feed on plant roots, for instance potato roots. The grubs develop in the earth for three to four years, in colder climates even five years, and grow continually to a size of about 4–5 cm, before they pupate in early autumn and develop into an adult cockchafer in six weeks.
The cockchafer overwinters in the earth at depths between 20 and 100 cm. They work their way to the surface only in spring.
Because of their long development time as larvae, cockchafers appear in a cycle of every three or four years; the years vary from region to region. There is a larger cycle of around 30 years superimposed, in which they occur (or rather, used to occur) in unusually high numbers (10000s).
Pest control and history
Both the grubs and the imagines have a voracious appetite and thus have been and sometimes continue to be a major problem in agriculture and forestry. In the pre-industrialized era, the main mechanism to control their numbers was to collect and kill the adult beetles, thereby interrupting the cycle. They were once very abundant: in 1911, more than 20 million individuals were collected in 18 km² of forest.
Collecting adults was an only moderately successful method. In the Middle Ages, pest control was rare, and people had no effective means to protect their harvest. This gave rise to events that seem bizarre from a modern perspective. In 1320, for instance, cockchafers were brought to court in Avignon and sentenced to withdraw within three days onto a specially designated area, otherwise they would be outlawed. Subsequently since they failed to comply, they were collected and killed. (Similar animal trials also occurred for many other animals in the Middle Ages.)
In some areas and times, cockchafers were even served as food. A 19th century recipe from France for cockchafer soup reads: "roast one pound of cockchafers without wings and legs in sizzling butter, then cook them in a chicken soup, add some veal liver and serve with chives on a toast". And a German newspaper from Fulda from the 1920s tells of students eating sugar-coated cockchafers. A cockchafer stew is referred to in W.G. Sebald's novel The Emigrants.
Only with the modernization of agriculture in the 20th century and the invention of chemical pesticides did it become possible to effectively combat the cockchafer. Combined with the transformation of many pastures into agricultural land, this has resulted in a decrease of the cockchafer to near-extinction in some areas in Europe in the 1970s. Since then, agriculture has generally reduced its use of pesticides. Because of environmental and public health concerns (pesticides may enter the food chain and thus also the human body) many chemical pesticides have been phased out in the European Union and worldwide. In recent years, the cockchafer's numbers have been increasing again, causing damage to over 1,000 km² of land all over Europe. At present, no chemical pesticides are approved for use against cockchafers, and only biological measures are utilised for control: for instance, pathogenic fungi or nematodes that kill the grubs are applied to the soil.
Children since antiquity have played with cockchafers. In ancient Greece, boys caught the insect, tied a linen thread to its feet and set it free, amusing themselves to watch it fly in spirals. English boys in Victorian times played a very similar game by sticking a pin through one of its wings. Nikola Tesla recalls that as a child he made one of his first "inventions" — an "engine" made by harnessing four cockchafers in this fashion.
The cockchafer is featured in a German children's rhyme similar to the English Ladybird, Ladybird:
The verse dates back to the Thirty Years' War in the first half of the 17th Century, in which Pomerania was pillaged and suffered heavily. Since World War II, it is associated in Germany also with the closing months of that war, when Russian troops advanced into Eastern Germany.
The cockchafer was the basis for the "fifth trick" in the well-known illustrated German book Max and Moritz dating from 1865.
In the novel The Emigrants (1992) by W.G. Sebald, in the section entitled "Paul Bereyter," the narrator sits in the back of Bereyter's class at school with Fritz Binswanger near a cockchafer display case which includes "a pair of cockchafers...a clutch of eggs, a pupa and a larva, and in the upper portion, cockchafers were hatching, flying, and eating the leaves of apple trees." The boys are inspired to study cockchafers because of the case, and finally they make and eat a cockchafer stew.
The binomial nomenclature Melolontha melolontha was mentioned in an episode of Bones (2005) entitled "The Tough Man in the Tender Chicken": as Drs. Brennan and Hodgins enter the lab, Dr. Hodgins said he came in (to the lab) early to see if his Melolontha melolontha had hatched.
- Norfolk Wildlife Trust: See Did you know? section on this link
- Natural History Museum, London: English Insects illustration of Minotaur beetles and Cockchafer by James Barbut,
- Barton, K.: Verfluchte Kreaturen: Lichtenbergs "Proben seltsamen Aberglaubens" und die Logik der Hexen- und Insektenverfolgung im "Malleus Maleficarum", in Joost, U.; Neumann, A. (eds): Lichtenberg-Jahrbuch 2004, p. 11ff, Saarbrücken 2004 (SDV Saarländische Druckerei und Verlag), ISBN 3-930843-87-0. In German.
- Peter Parley's annual: A Christmas and New Year's present for young people.. By Samuel Clark, Ben George, Peter Parley, Samuel Griswold Goodrich; p56
- Tesla, Nikola (1919). "My Inventions". Electrical Experimenter. Retrieved 2011-05-13. --
The Italian, specifically Neapolitan, collection of stories Il Pentamerone of Giambattista Basile (in its English translation by Norman M. Penzer from Benedetto Croce's Italian) contains a tale on Day 3, Night 5: "The Cockchafer, Mouse and Grasshopper".
Linnaeus called the European cockchafer Scarabaeus melolontha. Étienne Louis Geoffroy used Melolontha as a genus name (1762), but his book has been suppressed by the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature, and the authority for the name is the later (1775) publication by Johan Christian Fabricius.
- Melolontha aceris Faldermann, 1835
- Melolontha afflicta Ballion, 1870
- Melolontha albida Frivaldszky, 1835
- Melolontha anita Reitter, 1902
- Melolontha argus Burmeister 1855
- Melolontha bifurcata (Brenske, 1896)
- Melolontha chinensis (Guerin, 1838)
- Melolontha ciliciensis Petrovitz
- Melolontha flabellata Sharp, 1876
- Melolontha frater Arrow, 1913 – Indonesia
- Melolontha fuscotestacea Kraatz, 1887
- Melolontha guttigera Sharp, 1876
- Melolontha hippocastani Fabricius, 1801 – European forest cockchafer
- Melolontha incana Motchulsky, 1853
- Melolontha insulana Burmeister, 1939
- Melolontha japonica Burmeister, 1855
- Melolontha kraatzi Reitter 1906
- Melolontha melolontha (Linnaeus, 1758) – common European cockchafer
- Melolontha papposa Illiger, 1803
- Melolontha pectoralis Megerle von Mühlfeld, 1812 – European large cockchafer
- Melolontha rubiginosa
- Melolontha rufocrassa Fairmaire, 1889
- Melolontha satsumaenis Nijma & Kinoshita
- Melolontha virescens (Brenske, 1896)
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