The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Barnes, R. 1987. Invertebrate Zoology. Orlando, Florida: Dryden Press.
  • Blum, J., A. Wiestner, P. Fuhr, C. Hatz. 2000. Encephalopathy following Loa loa treatment with albendazole. Acta Tropica, 78: 63-65.
  • Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
  • Carlo Denegri Foundation, 2000. "Blood and Skin Parasites, Nematoda: Order: Filariata, Loa loa" (On-line). Atlas of Medical Parasitology. Accessed September 27, 2004 at
  • Chippaux, J., M. Boussinesq, J. Gardon, N. Gardon-Wendel, J. Ernould. 1996. Severe adverse reaction risks during mass treatment with ivermectin in loiasis-endemic areas. Parasitology Today, 12: 448-450.
  • Gardon, J., N. Gardon-Wendel, Demanga-Ngangue, J. Kamgno, J. Chippaux. 1997. Serious reactions after mass treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in an area endemic for Loa loa infection. Lancet, 350: 18-22.
  • Hoerauf, A. (2009). Mansonella perstans — The Importance of an Endosymbiont. The New England Journal of Medicine. 361, 1502-1504.
  • Ohio State University, 2001. "Loa loa" (On-line). Parasites and Parasitological Resources. Accessed September 27, 2004 at
  • Padgett, J. J., & Jacobsen K. H. (2008). Loiasis: African eye worm. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 102(10), 983 - 989.
  • Roberts, L., J. Janovy. 2000. Foundations of Parasitology 6th ed.. Boston: McGraw Hill.
  • Thompson, M., V. Obsomer, M. Dunne, S. Connor, D. Molyneux. 2000. Satellite mapping of Loa loa prevalence in relation to ivermectin use in west and central Africa. Lancet, 356: 1077-1078.


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