The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Carter, D. 1992. Butterflies and Moths. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Ehrlich, P. 1961. How to Know the Butterflies. Dubuque, Iowa: W. C. Brown Co..
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Milne, L. 1980. The Aubudon Society field guide to North American insects and spiders. New York: Random House.
  • Neck, R. 1996. A Field Guide to Butterflies of Texas. Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co..
  • Opler, P. 1992. A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co..
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Scott, J. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Standford, CA: Standford University Press.
  • Stokes, D., L. Stokes. 1991. The Butterfly Book. Boston: Little Brown.
  • Tveten, J. 1996. Butterflies of Houston and Southeast Texas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.


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