Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

Also called drooping star-of-Bethlehem, this species was introduced for ornamental purposes and is widely cultivated. A diminutive close relative (O. umbellatum), known as sleepydick, nap-at-noon, and common star-of-Bethlehem, is native to northern Africa, western Asia and Europe, and was also introduced as an ornamental plant. It has been reported to be invasive in the mid-Atlantic, Northeast and elsewhere.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

Bulbous, perennial herbs. Leaves rosulate or distichous, 1-many. Inflorescence a terminal, simple raceme, many-few-flowered. Bracts 1 per flower, never decurrent. Perianth segments 6, free or rarely fused at base, in two subequal whorls, the inner slightly longer, spreading at least at anthesis, persistent, white, green or yellow. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls; filaments free. Ovary 3-locular; ovules few to many. Capsule loculicidal. Seeds variously shaped.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Distribution and Habitat in the United States

Nodding star-of-Bethlehem occurs in scattered locations in the Midwest, Great Lakes, Northeast and mid-Atlantic and has been reported to be invasive in Maryland and Pennsylvania. It is adapted to floodplains, fields, waste places, abandoned gardens and grows in full sun to partial shade. Sleepydick is more widespread and has been reported to be invasive in at least 10 states from Wisconsin to Connecticut south to Tennessee and Virginia.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Origin

Europe (Ukraine, Bulgaria and Greece) and Asia (Turkey)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description and Biology

  • Plant: bulbous herbaceous annual to 20 in. in height (nodding star-of-Bethlehem) or 12 in. (sleepydick).
  • Leaves: basal, linear, narrow, and succulent with parallel veins, 0.3-0.6 in. wide (nodding); grasslike and less than ¼ in. wide (sleepydick).
  • Flowers, fruits and seeds: flower is a “perianth” consisting of 6 petal-like structures called tepals that are white with a wide central green stripe on the outer or underside; flowers occur in racemes; fruits are 3-angled-capsules which are broadly ovoid.
  • Spreads: by bulbils and seeds.
  • Look-alikes: other spring-flowering herbaceous bulbous plants.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
Ditylenchus dipsaci infects and damages live, soft or necrotic bulb of Ornithogalum

Foodplant / pathogen
Hyacinth Mosaic virus infects and damages live, light and dark green blotched peduncle of Ornithogalum

Foodplant / pathogen
Ornithogalum Mosaic virus infects and damages live, light and dark green blotched peduncle of Ornithogalum

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:116Public Records:92
Specimens with Sequences:109Public Species:46
Specimens with Barcodes:104Public BINs:0
Species:50         
Species With Barcodes:48         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Ornithogalum

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Management

Prevention and Control

Be on the lookout for it and dig it up as soon as it is noticed. Most of the time, the bulbs will be extremely deep.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Once established, it spreads across the forest floor and displaces many species of native spring ephemeral plants.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Ornithogalum

Ornithogalum is a genus of perennial plants mostly native to southern Europe and southern Africa[1] belonging to the family Hyacinthaceae. There are some species native to other areas such as the Caucasus.[2] Growing from a bulb, it has grass-like basal leaves and a slender stalk, up to 30 cm tall, bearing clusters of star-shaped white flowers striped with green. There are about 150 species, of which the best known are O. umbellatum, O. saundersii, O. arabicum and O. thyrsoides. [3]

O. arabicum (Star-of-Bethlehem)
O. dubium (Sun Star)
O. longibracteatum (Pregnant Onion/False Sea Onion)
O. maculatum (Snake Flower)
O. narbonense (Pyramidal Star-of-Bethlehem)
O. nutans (Drooping Star-of-Bethlehem)
O. pyrenaicum (Bath Asparagus/Prussian Asparagus/Spiked Star-of-Bethlehem)
O. umbellatum (Common Star-of-Bethlehem)
O. thyroides (Chincherinchee)

Because of its star-shaped flowers, it is named for the Star of Bethlehem that appeared in the Biblical account of the birth of Jesus.

Other species of Ornithogalum include:

O. britteniae[4]
O. neurostegium
O. canadense
O. clanwilliamae-gloria
O. conicum
O. cooperi
O. flaccidum
O. fragrans
O. graminifolium
O. imbricatum
O. saundersii Giant chincherinchee
O. strictum

Ornithogalum saundersii (syn. O. saundersiae) was named after Charles Saunders

Toxicity

Some of the plants in the genus are poisonous, and have been known to kill grazing animals. Others are edible and used as vegetables. These flowers' bulbs contain alkaloids[citation needed] and cardenolides,[1] which are toxic.

References

  1. ^ a b "Ornithogalum Linnaeus". Flora of North America. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=123199. 
  2. ^ "Ornithogalum L.". Ornamental Plants From Russia And Adjacent States Of The Former Soviet Union. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=120&taxon_id=123199. 
  3. ^ International Flower Bulb Centre: Ornithogalum
  4. ^ AP Dold (2003). "The rediscovery of Ornithogalum britteniae (Hyacinthaceae) and an amendment to the description". South African Journal of Botany 69 (4): 500–504. http://www.ajol.info/viewarticle.php?id=12306&jid=118&layout=abstract 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!