The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • R. Eric Thijl Vanstreels et al., “Investigation of blood parasites of pygoscelid penguins at the King George and Elephant Islands, South Shetlands Archipelago, Antarctica”, Polar Biology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 135 - 139, 2014.
  • WoRMS (2014). Sphenisciformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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