Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Flowers selectively deter insects: acacia
 

Flowers of some acacia plants attract pollinators while deterring protective symbiotic ants through the use of volatile organic compounds.

       
  "1. Ants show complex interactions with plants, both facultative and mutualistic, ranging from grazers through seed predators and dispersers to herders of some herbivores and guards against others. But ants are rarely pollinators, and their visits to flowers may be detrimental to plant fitness.

"2. Plants therefore have various strategies to control ant distributions, and restrict them to foliage rather than flowers. These 'filters' may involve physical barriers on or around flowers, or 'decoys and bribes' sited on the foliage (usually extrafloral nectaries - EFNs). Alternatively, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are used as signals to control ant behaviour, attracting ants to leaves and ⁄ or deterring them from functional flowers. Some of the past evidence that flowers repel ants by VOCs has been equivocal and we describe the shortcomings of some experimental approaches, which involve behavioural tests in artificial conditions.

"3. We review our previous study of myrmecophytic acacias, which used in situ experiments to show that volatiles derived from pollen can specifically and transiently deter ants during dehiscence, the effects being stronger in ant-guarded species and more effective on resident ants, both in African and Neotropical species. In these plants, repellence involves at least some volatiles that are known components of ant alarm pheromones, but are not repellent to beneficial bee visitors.

"4. We also present new evidence of ant repellence by VOCs in temperate flowers, which is usually pollen-based and active on common European ants. We use these data to indicate that across a wide range of plants there is an apparent trade-off in ant-controlling filter strategies between the use of defensive floral volatiles and the alternatives of decoying EFNs or physical barriers." (Willmer et al. 2009:888)

  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Willmer PG; Nuttman CV; Raine NE; Stone GN; Pattrick JG; Henson K; Stillman P; McIlroy L; Potts SG; Knudsen JT. 2009. Floral volatiles controlling ant behaviour. Functional Ecology. 23: 888–900.
  • Gill V. 2009. Acacia plant controls ants with chemical. BBC News [Internet],
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:63Public Records:57
Specimens with Sequences:58Public Species:18
Specimens with Barcodes:51Public BINs:0
Species:18         
Species With Barcodes:12         
          
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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Vachellia

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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Vachellia

Vachellia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Mimosoideae. Its species were considered members of genus Acacia until 2005.[2][5]

Species List[edit]

Incertae Sedis[edit]

These species are suspected to belong to Vachellia, but have not been formally transferred.[6]

Hybrids[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Seigler DS, Ebinger JE. (2005). "New combinations in the genus Vachellia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) from the New World.". Phytologia 87 (3): 139–78. 
  2. ^ a b Kyalangalilwa B, Boatwright JS, Daru BH, Maurin O, van der Bank M. (2013). "Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia.". Bot J Linn Soc 172 (4): 500–523. doi:10.1111/boj.12047. 
  3. ^ Seigler DS, Ebinger JE. (2010). "New Combinations in Senegalia and Vachellia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae).". Phytologia 92 (1): 92–95. 
  4. ^ Maslin BR, Seigler DS, Ebinger J. (2013). "New combinations in Senegalia and Vachellia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) for Southeast Asia and China.". Blumea 58 (1): 39–44. doi:10.3767/000651913X669914. 
  5. ^ a b Clarke HD, Seigler DS, Ebinger JE. (2009). "Taxonomic Revision of the Vachellia acuifera Species Group (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in the Caribbean.". Syst Bot 34 (1): 84–101. doi:10.1600/036364409787602285. 
  6. ^ a b Maslin B.. "List of Acacia sensu lato species". World Wide Wattle. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Kodela PG, Wilson PG (2006). "New combinations in the genus Vachellia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) from Australia.". Telopea 11: 233–244. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Protected Trees". Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa. 3 May 2013. 
  10. ^ Seigler DS, García R, Mejía M, Ebinger JE. (2012). "A new species of Vachellia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) from Haiti". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 6 (1): 45. 


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