Pelecaniformes — Literature

Pelicans, Tropicbirds, Cormorants, and Relatives learn more about names for this taxon

The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J, Kaschner K, Ben Rais Lasram F, et al. 2010. The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11842. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011842
  • Cracraft, J. 1985. Monophyly and the phylogenetic relationships of the Pelecaniformes: a numerical cladistic analysis. Auk 102: 834-853.
  • Cracraft, J., F. Keith Barker, M. J. Braun, J. Harshman, G. Dyke, J. Feinstein, S. Stanley, A. Cibois, P. Schikler, P. Beresford, J. García-Moreno, M. D. Sorenson, T. Yuri, and D. P. Mindell. 2004. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Modern Birds (Neornithes): Toward an Avian Tree of Life. Pp 468-489 in Cracraft, J. and M. J. Donoghue (eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Fain, M. G., and P. Houde. 2004. Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds. Evolution 58:2558-2573.
  • Hackett, S. J., Kimball, R. T., Reddy, S., Bowie, R. C. K., Braun, E. L., Braun, M. J., Chojnowski, J. L., Cox, W. A., Han, K.-L., Harshman, J., Huddleston, C. J., Marks, B. D., Miglia, K. J., Moore, W. A., Sheldon, F. H., Steadman, D. W., Witt, C. C., and Yuri, T. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320(5884):1763-1768.
  • Hedges, S. B., and Sibley, C. G. 1994. Molecules vs. morphology in avian evolution: The case of the "pelecaniform" birds. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 9861-9865.
  • Johnsgaard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, Darters, and Pelicans of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.
  • Kennedy, M. and H. G. Spencer. 2004. Phylogenies of the frigatebirds (Fregatidae) and tropicbirds (Phaethontidae), two divergent groups of the traditional order Pelecaniformes, inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31:31-38.
  • Kennedy, M., H. G. Spencer, and R. D. Gray. 2000. Hop, step and gape: do the social displays of the Pelecaniformes reflect phylogeny? Animal Behaviour 51: 273-291.
  • Kennedy, M., Holland, B.R., Gray, R.D., and Spencer, H.G. 2005. Untangling long branches: Identifying conflicting phylogenetic signals a priori using spectral analysis, neighbor-net, and consensus networks. Systematic Biology 54:620-633.
  • Livezey, B. C., and R. L. Zusi. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 149:1-95.
  • Mayr, G. 2003. On the phylogenetic relationships of trogons (Aves, Trogonidae). J. Avian Biol. 34:81-88.
  • Nelson, J. B. 2006. Pelicans, Cormorants, and Their Relatives: The Pelecaniformes. Bird Families of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.
  • Sheldon, F. H. and B. Slikas. 1997. Advances in Ciconiiform Systematics. Colonial Waterbirds 20(1):106-114.
  • Sibley, C. G. and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Siegel-Causey, D. 1997. Phylogeny of the Pelecaniformes: molecular systematics of a privative group. Pp 159-171 in Mindell, D. P. (ed.), Avian Molecular Evolution and Systematics. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • WoRMS (2014). Pelecaniformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • van Tuinen, M., D. B. Butvill, J. A. W. Kirsch, and S. B. Hedges. 2001. Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 268:1345-1350.


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