The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Baker, A. J., S. L. Pereira, and T. A. Paton. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: Multigene evidence for he Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds. Biology Letters 3:205-209.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Chu, P.C. 1995. Phylogenetic reanalysis of Strauch's osteological data set for the Charadriiformes. Condor 97:174-196.
  • Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J, Kaschner K, Ben Rais Lasram F, et al. 2010. The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11842. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011842
  • Crochet, P.-A., F. Bonhomme, and J. D. Lebreton. 2000. Molecular phylogeny and plumage evolution in gulls (Larini). J. Evol. Biol. 13:47-57.
  • Ericson, P. G. P., I. Envall, M. Irestedt, and J. A. Norman. 2003. Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves : Charadriiformes) based on nuclear DNA sequence data. BMC Evol. Biol. 3:16.
  • Fain, M. G., and P. Houde. 2004. Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds. Evolution 58:2558-2573.
  • G. E. MacGinitie, Ecological aspects of a California marine estuary, Am. Midland Nat. 16(5):629-765, from p. 652 (1935).
  • H. W. Koepcke and M. Koepcke, Sobre el proceso de transformacion de la materia organica en las playas arenosas marinas del Peru. Publ. Univ. Nac. Mayer San Marcos, Zoologie Serie A, No. 8, from p. 24 (1952).
  • Harshman, J. 1994. Reweaving the Tapestry: What can we learn from Sibley and Ahlquist (1990)? Auk 111:377-388.
  • Hayman, P., J. Marchant, and T. Prater. 1986. Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • J. Brown, The structure and function of the tundra ecosystem, U.S. Tundra Biome 1971 Progress Rept. 1 (1971).
  • J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Paton, T. A., A. J. Baker, J. G. Groth, and G. F. Barrowclough. 2003. RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within Charadriiform birds Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 29:268-278.
  • R. F. Johnston, Predation by short-eared owls on a Salicornia salt marsh, Wilson Bull. 68(2):91-102, from p. 99 (1956).
  • Rosair, D. 1995. Photographic Guide to the Shorebirds of the World. New York: Facts on File.
  • Sibley, C. G., and J. A. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds, Yale U. Press, New Haven.
  • Soothill, E. and R. Soothill. 1989. Wading Birds of the World. 2nd ed. London: Blandford.
  • Thomas, G. H., M. A. Wills, and T. Szekely. 2004. A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny. BMC Evol. Biol. 4:28.
  • Thomas, G. H., M. A. Wills, and T. Szekely. 2004. Phylogeny of shorebirds, gulls, and alcids (Aves: Charadrii) from the cytochrome-b gene: Parsimony, Bayesian inference, minumum evolution, and quartet puzzling. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 30, 516-526.
  • Whittingham, L. A., F. H. Sheldon, and S. T. Emlen. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of jacanas and its implications for morphologic and biogeographic evolution. The Auk 117:22–32.
  • WoRMS (2013). Charadriiformes. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • van Tuinen, M., D. B. Butvill, J. A. W. Kirsch, and S. B. Hedges. 2001. Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 268B:1-6.
  • van Tuinen, M., D. Waterhouse, and G. J. Dyke. 2004. Avian molecular systematics on the rebound: a fresh look at modern shorebird phylogenetic relationships. J. Avian Biol. 35:191-194.


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