Localities documented in Tropicos sources
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Colombia (South America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- Forzza, R. C. & et al. 2010. 2010 Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100002289
- Molina Rosito, A. 1975. Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 19(1): 1–118. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/866
- Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2010. Fl. China 23: 1–515. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100001734
- González E., M. S. 1994. 22. Eleocharis R. Br. Fl. Mesoamer. 6: 458–464. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1006912
- Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100008595
- USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100004579
Depth range (m): 1 - 1
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
effuse colony of Coremiella dematiaceous anamorph of Coremiella cubispora is saprobic on Eleocharis
Remarks: season: 7-10
Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Donacia thalassina feeds on root of Eleocharis
Remarks: Other: uncertain
In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / gall
Physoderma heleocharidis causes gall of live stem of Eleocharis
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||191||Public Records:||68|
|Specimens with Sequences:||129||Public Species:||32|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||117||Public BINs:||0|
|Species With Barcodes:||42|
Locations of barcode samples
Eleocharis is a genus of 250 or more species of flowering plants in the sedge family, Cyperaceae. The name is derived from the Greek words ἕλειος (heleios), meaning "marsh dweller," and χάρις (charis), meaning "grace." Members of the genus are known commonly as spikerushes, although spikesedges is a more technically appropriate name and most scientists who study them in earnest refer to them as such. The genus has a geographically cosmopolitan distribution, with centers of diversity in the Amazon Rainforest and adjacent eastern slopes of the South American Andes, northern Australia, eastern North America, California, Southern Africa, and subtropical Asia. The vast majority of Eleocharis species grow in aquatic or mesic habitats from sea level to higher than 5,000 meters in elevation (in the tropical Andes).
The genus itself is relatively easy to recognize; all Eleocharis species have photosynthetic stems and lack leaves (the leaves have been reduced to sheaths surrounding the base of the stems). Many species are robust, rhizomatously-spreading plants of lowland tropical wetlands, while many others are small caespitose annual or perennial herbs growing near streams, and still others are intermediate. There are also a number of species that are obligate aquatic species, which usually have submerged, branching stems and often exhibit interesting photosynthetic adaptations, such as the ability to switch between C3 and C4 carbon fixation in response to different environmental stimuli. In all Eleocharis species, the flowers are borne on unbranched terminal spikelets at the apices of stems.
In spite of the diversity of the genus itself, taxonomic characters useful for delimiting species within it are few, and many species are very difficult to tell apart. Many currently recognized species with very wide geographic ranges are highly polymorphic. Some of these species probably contain multiple independently-evolving lineages. Because of their difficult nature, many botanists avoid collecting these plants and so many species are under-represented in the botanical record.
One of the best known species is the Chinese water chestnut, Eleocharis dulcis. These plants bear tubers on their rhizomes which may be peeled and eaten raw or boiled. In Australia, magpie geese rely almost exclusively on these tubers for sustenance for a significant portion of the year.
- Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult. – needle spikerush; dwarf hairgrass
- Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb.) Schult.
- Eleocharis afflata Steud.
- Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz.) J.Presl & C.Presl – purple spikerush
- Eleocharis baldwinii (Torr.) Chapm.
- Eleocharis bella (Piper) Svenson – beautiful spikerush
- Eleocharis bolanderi A.Gray – Bolander's spikerush
- Eleocharis brittonii Svenson ex Small
- Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. – coastal spikerush, Gulf Coast spikerush
- Eleocharis compressa Sull. – flatstem spikerush
- Eleocharis congesta D.Don
- Eleocharis dulcis (Burm.f.) Trin. ex Hensch. – Chinese water chestnut
- Eleocharis elegans (Kunth) Roem. & Schult.
- Eleocharis equisetoides (Elliott) Torr.
- Eleocharis filiculmis Kunth
- Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult. – Canada spikesedge
- Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi
- Eleocharis macrostachya Britton – pale spikerush
- Eleocharis montana (Kunth) Roem. & Schult.
- Eleocharis montevidensis Kunth – sand spikerush
- Eleocharis mutata (L.) Roem. & Schult. – scallion grass
- Eleocharis nodulosa Schult.
- Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult. – blunt spikerush
- Eleocharis pachycarpa Desv. – black sand spikerush
- Eleocharis pachystyla (C.Wright) C.B.Clarke – false junco
- Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult. – common spikerush
- Eleocharis parishii Britton – Parish's spikerush
- Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link ex Bluff et al. – dwarf spikerush, hairgrass
- Eleocharis pellucida J.Presl & C.Presl
- Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michx.) Roem. – squarestem spikerush
- Eleocharis quinqueflora (Hartmann) O.Schwarz – fewflower spikerush
- Eleocharis radicans (A.Dietr.) Kunth – rooted spikerush
- Eleocharis rostellata (Torr.) Torr. – beaked spikerush
- Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth
- Eleocharis tenuis (Willd.) Schult. – slender spikerush
- Eleocharis torticulmis S.G.Sm. – twist-stem spikerush
- Eleocharis tortilis (Link) Schult. – twisted spikerush
- Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michx.) Roem. & Schult.
- Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) (Link) Schult., 1824
- Eleocharis vivipara Link – umbrella hairgrass
- "Genus: Eleocharis R. Br.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2010-03-03. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- Smith, S. Galen; Jeremy J. Bruhl, M. Socorro González-Elizondo & Francis J. Menapace. "ELEOCHARIS R. Brown, Prodr. 224. 1810.". Flora of North America. eFloras.org. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- "Eleocharis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- "GRIN Species Records of Eleocharis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
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