Molecular Biology and Genetics

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Specimen Records: 107
Specimens with Sequences: 139
Specimens with Barcodes: 118
Species: 22
Species With Barcodes: 20
Public Records: 77
Public Species: 19
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Wikipedia

Arisaema

Arisaema is a large and diverse genus of the flowering plant family Araceae. The largest concentration of species is in China and Japan, with other species native other parts of southern Asia as well as eastern and central Africa, Mexico and eastern North America.[1] Asiatic species are often called cobra lilies, while western species are often called jack-in-the-pulpit; both names refer to the distinctive appearance of the flower, which consists of an erect central spadix rising from a spathe.[2][3][4]

Classification and relationships[edit]

The closest relatives of Arisaema appear to be Pinellia and Typhonium (although the latter as defined in 2004 seems to be paraphyletic, having given rise to Arisaema and other genera).[5] One unusual trait shared by all Arisaema species, and not those of other genera, is the sex change. Arisaema plants are typically male when small, and female or hermaphraditic when large, with a single plant capable of changing sex based on nutrition[5] and genetics,[6] and perhaps changing sex several times during its long life (20 years or more).[5]

Species[edit]

  1. Arisaema abei Seriz - Shikoku Island in Japan
  2. Arisaema aequinoctiale Nakai & F.Maek - Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku Islands in Japan
  3. Arisaema agasthyanum Sivad. & C.S.Kumar - southwestern India
  4. Arisaema album N.E.Br. - Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in eastern India
  5. Arisaema amurense Maxim. - Russian Far East, China, North Korea
  6. Arisaema anomalum Hemsl. - Peninsular Malaysia
  7. Arisaema aprile J.Murata - Izu Peninsula on Honshu Island in Japan
  8. Arisaema aridum H.Li - Yunnan
  9. Arisaema asperatum N.E.Br - China, eastern Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar
  10. Arisaema auriculatum Buchet - Sichuan, Hunan, and Yunnan Provinces in China
  11. Arisaema austroyunnanense H.Li - Yunnan, Vietnam
  12. Arisaema averyanovii V.D.Nguyen & P.C.Boyce - Vietnam
  13. Arisaema balansae Engl. - Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, southern China
  14. Arisaema bannaense H.Li - Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar, Yunnan
  15. Arisaema barbatum Buchet - Yunnan, Thailand, Java, Bali
  16. Arisaema barnesii C.E.C.Fisch - India, Sri Lanka
  17. Arisaema bockii Engl. - China
  18. Arisaema bonatianum Engl. - Sichuan, Yunnan
  19. Arisaema bottae Schott - Yemen
  20. Arisaema brucei H.Li, R.Li & J.Murata - Yunnan
  21. Arisaema calcareum H.Li - Yunnan
  22. Arisaema candidissimum W.W.Sm. - Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan
  23. Arisaema caudatum Engl. - western India
  24. Arisaema chuanxiense Z.Y.Zhu, B.Q.Min & S.J.Zhu - Sichuan
  25. Arisaema chumponense Gagnep. - Thailand
  26. Arisaema ciliatum H.Li - Sichuan, Yunnan
  27. Arisaema clavatum Buchet - Chongqing, Guizhou, Hubei, Sichuan
  28. Arisaema concinnum Schott - Tibet, Assam, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar, eastern + northern India
  29. Arisaema condaoense V.D.Nguyen - Condao Island in Vietnam
  30. Arisaema consanguineum Schott - southern China, Himalayas, Indochina
  31. Arisaema constrictum E.Barnes - Sri Lanka
  32. Arisaema cordatum N.E.Br. - Guangxi, Guangdong, Lantao
  33. Arisaema costatum (Wall.) Mart. - Tibet, Nepal
  34. Arisaema cucullatum M.Hotta - Honshu in Japan
  35. Arisaema dahaiense H.Li - Yunnan, Myanmar
  36. Arisaema decipiens Schott - southern China, eastern Himalayas, Vietnam
  37. Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott - Green dragon - Nuevo León + Veracruz in Mexico; much of eastern United States and eastern Canada
  38. Arisaema echinatum (Wall.) Schott - Tibet, Nepal, Yunnan, eastern Himalayas
  39. Arisaema echinoides H.Li - Yunnan
  40. Arisaema ehimense J.Murata & J.Ohno - Shikoku in Japan
  41. Arisaema elephas Buchet - Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet, Chongqing, Gansu, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
  42. Arisaema enneaphyllum Hochst. ex A.Rich. - Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Yemen
  43. Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott - Nepal
  44. Arisaema exappendiculatum H.Hara - Nepal, Tibet
  45. Arisaema fargesii Buchet - Tibet, Chongqing, Gansu, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan
  46. Arisaema filiforme (Reinw.) Blume - Borneo, Java, Malaysia, Sumatra
  47. Arisaema fimbriatum Masters - Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Pulau Lankawi
  48. Arisaema flavum (Forsk.) Schott - Ethiopia, Somalia, Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Assam, Himalayas, Tibet, Yunnan, Sichuan
  49. Arisaema formosanum (Hayata) Hayata - Taiwan
  50. Arisaema franchetianum Engl. - Tibet, Myanmar, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan
  51. Arisaema fraternum Schott - Assam
  52. Arisaema galeatum N.E.Br. - Tibet, Bhutan, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Myanmar
  53. Arisaema garrettii Gagnep. - Thailand
  54. Arisaema ghaticum (Sardesai, S.P.Gaikwad & S.R.Yadav) Punekar & Kumaran - Maharashtra
  55. Arisaema grapsospadix Hayata - Fujian, Taiwan
  56. Arisaema griffithii Schott - Nepal, Darjiling, Tibet
  57. Arisaema hainanense C.Y.Wu ex H.Li, Y.Shiao & S.L.Tseng - Hainan
  58. Arisaema handelii Stapf ex Hand.-Mazz. - Tibet, Myanmar, Yunnan
  59. Arisaema heterocephalum Koidz. - Ryukyu Islands
  60. Arisaema heterophyllum - Korea, Japan, widespread across much of China
  61. Arisaema hunanense Hand.-Mazz. - Chongqing, Guangdong, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan
  62. Arisaema ilanense J.C.Wang - Taiwan
  63. Arisaema inclusum (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br. ex B.D.Jacks. - Java, Sumatra, Flores
  64. Arisaema intermedium Blume - Tibet, Yunnan, Nepal, eastern Himalayas
  65. Arisaema ishizuchiense Murata - Honshu, Shikoku
  66. Arisaema iyoanum Makino - Honshu, Shikoku
  67. Arisaema jacquemontii Blume - Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Himalayas of northern + eastern India
  68. Arisaema jethompsonii Thiyagaraj & P.Daniel - Tamil Nadu
  69. Arisaema jingdongense H.Peng & H.Li - Yunnan
  70. Arisaema kawashimae Seriz - Ryukyu Islands
  71. Arisaema kerrii Craib - Thailand
  72. Arisaema kishidae Makino ex Nakai - Honshu
  73. Arisaema kiushianum Makino - Honshu, Kyushu
  74. Arisaema kuratae Seriz - Honshu
  75. Arisaema lackneri Engl. - Yunnan, Myanmar
  76. Arisaema laminatum Blume - Borneo, Java, Bali, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Palawan
  77. Arisaema leschenaultii Blume - southern India, Sri Lanka
  78. Arisaema lichiangense W.W.Sm. - Sichuan, Yunnan
  79. Arisaema lidaense J.Murata & S.K.Wu - Yunnan
  80. Arisaema lihenganum J.Murata & S.K.Wu - Guangxi
  81. Arisaema limbatum Nakai & F.Maek. - Japan
  82. Arisaema linearifolium Gusman & J.T.Yin - Yunnan
  83. Arisaema lingyunense H.Li - Guangxi, Assam, Myanmar
  84. Arisaema lobatum Engl. - China
  85. Arisaema longipedunculatum M.Hotta - Japan
  86. Arisaema macrospathum Benth. - Mexico (from Oaxaca north to Sinaloa + Nuevo León)
  87. Arisaema maekawae J.Murata & S.Kakish. - Honshu
  88. Arisaema mairei H.Lév. - Sichuan, Yunnan
  89. Arisaema maximowiczii (Engl.) Nakai - Kyushu
  90. Arisaema maxwellii Hett. & Gusman - Thailand
  91. Arisaema meleagris Buchet - Chongqing, Sichuan, Yunnan
  92. Arisaema menglaense Y.H.Ji, H.Li & Z.F.Xu - Guangxi
  93. Arisaema microspadix Engl. - Java, Timor
  94. Arisaema mildbraedii Engl. - Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi
  95. Arisaema minamitanii Seriz - Kyushu
  96. Arisaema minus (Seriz.) J.Murata - Honshu
  97. Arisaema monophyllum Nakai - Honshu
  98. Arisaema mooneyanum M.G.Gilbert & Mayo - Ethiopia
  99. Arisaema muratae Gusman & J.T.Yin - Yunnan
  100. Arisaema muricaudatum Sivad. - Kerala
  101. Arisaema murrayi (J.Graham) Hook. - Maharashtra
  102. Arisaema nagiense Tom.Kobay., K.Sasam. & J.Murata - Honshu
  103. Arisaema nambae Kitam. - Honshu
  104. Arisaema negishii Makino - Hachijo + Miyake Islands of Japan
  105. Arisaema nepenthoides (Wall.) Mart. - Nepal, Tibet, Yunnan, Bhutan, Assam, Myanmar
  106. Arisaema nikoense Nakai - Honshu
  107. Arisaema nilamburense Sivad. - Kerala
  108. Arisaema odoratum J.Murata & S.K.Wu - Yunnan
  109. Arisaema ogatae Koidz. - Kyushu
  110. Arisaema omkoiense Gusman - Thailand
  111. Arisaema ornatum Miq. - Sumatra
  112. Arisaema ovale Nakai - Japan
  113. Arisaema pachystachyum Hett. & Gusman - Thailand
  114. Arisaema pallidum Engl. - Sumatra
  115. Arisaema parisifolia J.Murata - Laos, Vietnam
  116. Arisaema parvum N.E.Br. ex Hemsl. - Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan
  117. Arisaema pattaniense Gagnep. - Thailand
  118. Arisaema penicillatum N.E.Br. - Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan
  119. Arisaema petelotii K.Krause - Yunnan, Vietnam
  120. Arisaema petiolulatum Hook.f. - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Myanmar, Yunnan
  121. Arisaema pianmaense H.Li - Yunnan
  122. Arisaema pingbianense H.Li - Yunnan, Vietnam
  123. Arisaema polyphyllum (Blanco) Merr. - Philippines, Sulawesi
  124. Arisaema prazeri Hook.f. - Yunnan, Thailand, Myanmar
  125. Arisaema propinquum Schott - Himalayas (Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet, India)
  126. Arisaema psittacus E.Barnes - Kerala
  127. Arisaema quinatum (Nutt.) Schott - southeastern United States
  128. Arisaema quinquelobatum H.Li & J.Murata - Yunnan
  129. Arisaema ramulosum Alderw. - Java, Timor
  130. Arisaema ringens (Thunb.) Schott - Korea, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Jiangsu, Taiwan, Zhejiang
  131. Arisaema rostratum V.D.Nguyen & P.C.Boyce - Vietnam
  132. Arisaema roxburghii Kunth - Assam, Indochina
  133. Arisaema rubrirhizomatum H.Li & J.Murata - Yunnan
  134. Arisaema ruwenzoricum N.E.Br. - Zaire, Uganda, Burundi
  135. Arisaema sachalinense (Miyabe & Kudô) J.Murata - Sakhalin in Russia, Hokkaido in Japan
  136. Arisaema saddlepeakense P.S.N.Rao & S.K.Srivast - Andaman Islands
  137. Arisaema sarracenioides E.Barnes & C.E.C.Fisch. - Kerala
  138. Arisaema saxatile Buchet - Sichuan, Yunnan
  139. Arisaema sazensoo (Blume) Makino - Kyushu
  140. Arisaema schimperianum Schott - Zaire, Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda
  141. Arisaema scortechinii Hook.f - Peninsular Malaysia
  142. Arisaema seppikoense Kitam. - Honshu
  143. Arisaema serratum (Thunb.) Schott - Primorye, Korea, Kuril Islands, Japan, northeastern China
  144. Arisaema setosum A.Sudh.Rao & D.M.Verma - Arunachal Pradesh
  145. Arisaema siamicum Gagnep. - Thailand, Vietnam
  146. Arisaema siangense Gusman - Arunachal Pradesh
  147. Arisaema sikokianum Franch. & Sav. - Shikoku
  148. Arisaema silvestrii Pamp. - China
  149. Arisaema sinii K.Krause - China
  150. Arisaema sizemoreae Hett. & Gusman - Thailand
  151. Arisaema smitinandii S.Y.Hu - Thailand
  152. Arisaema somalense M.G.Gilbert & Mayo - Somalia
  153. Arisaema souliei Buchet - Sichuan, Chongqing
  154. Arisaema speciosum (Wall.) Mart. - Cobra Lilly - Tibet, Nepal, Assam, Bhutan
  155. Arisaema sukotaiense Gagnep. - Yunnan, Thailand
  156. Arisaema taiwanense J.Murata - Taiwan
  157. Arisaema tengtsungense H.Li - Yunnan, Myanmar
  158. Arisaema ternatipartitum Makino - Japan
  159. Arisaema thunbergii Blume - Japan, Korea, Taiwan
  160. Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott - Whipcord cobra lily - India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Himalayas, Nepal, Assam, Pakistan, Tibet, Yunnan, Myanmar
  161. Arisaema tosaense Makino - Japan
  162. Arisaema translucens C.E.C.Fisch - Nilgiri Mountains in Tamil Nadu in India
  163. Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher - Small Jack-in-the-pulpit - eastern Canada, eastern United States
  164. Arisaema tsangpoense J.T.Yin & Gusman - Tibet
  165. Arisaema tuberculatum C.E.C.Fisch. - Nilgiri Mountains in Tamil Nadu in India
  166. Arisaema ulugurense M.G.Gilbert & Mayo - Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania
  167. Arisaema umbrinum Ridl. - Borneo
  168. Arisaema undulatifolium Nakai - Honshu + Shikoku in Japan
  169. Arisaema utile Hook.f. ex Schott - Tibet,Yunnan, Nepal, Bhutan, Himalayas of India + Pakistan
  170. Arisaema vexillatum H.Hara & H.Ohashi - Tibet, Nepal
  171. Arisaema victoriae V.D.Nguyen - Yunnan, Guangxi, Vietnam
  172. Arisaema wangmoense M.T.An, H.H.Zhang & Q.Lin - Guizhou
  173. Arisaema wardii C.Marquand & Airy Shaw - Qinghai, Shanxi, Yunnan, Tibet
  174. Arisaema wattii J. D. Hook. - Assam, Myanmar, Tibet, Yunnan
  175. Arisaema wilsonii Engl. - Tibet, Bhutan, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan
  176. Arisaema wrayi Hemsl. - Thailand, Sabah, Malaysia
  177. Arisaema xuanweiense H.Li - Yunnan
  178. Arisaema yamatense (Nakai) Nakai - Yamatense Cobra Lilly - Honshu
  179. Arisaema yanxianum Z.Y.Zhu & B.Q.Min - Sichuan
  180. Arisaema yunnanense Buchet - Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
  181. Arisaema zhui H.Li - Yunnan

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  3. ^ Flora China Vol. 23 Page 43, 天南星属 tian nan xing shu, Arisaema Martius, Flora. 14: 459. 1831.
  4. ^ Flora of North America, Vol. 22, Arisaema Martius, Flora. 14: 459. 1831.
  5. ^ a b c Renner, S. S.; Zhang, L.-B.; Murata, J. (2004), "A chloroplast phylogeny of Arisaema (Araceae) illustrates Tertiary floristic links between Asia, North America, and East Africa", American Journal of Botany 91 (6): 881, doi:10.3732/ajb.91.6.881 
  6. ^ Vitt, P.; Holsinger, K. E.; Jones, C. S. (2003), "Local differentiation and plasticity in size and sex expression in jack-in-the-pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum (Araceae)", American Journal of Botany 90 (12): 1729, doi:10.3732/ajb.90.12.1729 
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