Overview

Brief Summary

Online Identification Guides

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Comprehensive Description

Description

Perennial herbs. Culms triangular or rarely rounded. Leaves with prominent long leaf sheaths. Inflorescence usually composed of several cylindric spikes but (in spicato-paniculata) consisting of 1-2 pyramidal panicles arising from upper leaf sheaths. Flowers unisexual, in unisexual or bisexual spikes. In this genus, in addition to the normal glume subtending the flower, the female flowers are enclosed within a utricle, which is beaked above and broad below and hence shaped something like a bottle. Ovary with 2-3 stigmas protruding from the beak at the tip of the utricle. Male flowers with usually 3 stamens.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Herbs perennial, rarely annual. Rhizomatous; rarely stoloniferous as in Carex section Ovales. Culms trigonous; may be terete at nodes. Blades M to V to flat in cross section, rarely filiform,involute, or terete; pubescent or not. Inflorescences terminal; in racemes, spikes or panicles. Spikes consisting of unisexual flowers usually subtended by a single bract or scale. Sexuality of spikes variable. Pistillate flowers have a scale fused at edges forming the perigynium; a structure encasing the pistillate flower with an aperature for the style. Style two to three branched, rarely four; deciduous to persistent. Stamens, one to three. Achenes varied in cross section to plano-convex, biconvex to trigonous.

  • Ball, P. W., and Reznicek, A. A. (2002) Flora of North America. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part); Cyperaceae. Vol. 23. Oxford University Press.
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Agramma laetum sucks sap of Carex
Remarks: Other: uncertain

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / associate
fruitbody of Agrocybe paludosa is associated with Carex

Plant / resting place / on
female of Anaphothrips badius may be found on live Carex
Remarks: season: 3,7-9

Foodplant / parasite
sorus of Anthracoidea caricis sensu E&E parasitises live ovary of Carex

Plant / associate
imago of Bagous tempestivus is associated with Carex

Plant / resting place / on
larva of Bolothrips dentipes may be found on base of Carex
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Brachythops flavens grazes on leaf of Carex

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Brachythops w grazes on leaf of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Cellypha goldbachii is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex

Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Cerodontha angulata may be found on leaf of Carex

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Cerodontha caricicola may be found in leaf-mine of Carex

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Cerodontha eucaricis may be found in leaf-mine of Carex
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Cerodontha suturalis mines leaf of Carex
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
extensive, velvety colony of Cladosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Cladosporium cladosporioides is saprobic on dead, rain-soaked stem of Carex
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coprinopsis martinii is saprobic on decayed debris of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coprinopsis tigrinella is saprobic on decayed debris of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
often buried under desne layers of decayed grass leaves fruitbody of Coprinopsis urticicola is saprobic on decayed debris of Carex
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Cymus glandicolor sucks sap of Carex

Plant / associate
Cyrtorhinus caricis is associated with base of clump of Carex

Plant / hibernates / within
adult of Dictyla convergens hibernates inside tussock of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, gregarious apothecium of Didymella caricis is saprobic on leaf of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Didymella proximella is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 3-7

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Dolerus haematodes grazes on leaf of Carex

Plant / associate
larva of Donacia cinerea is associated with roots of Carex

Plant / resting place / among
clustered, in groups of up to 10 cocoon of Donacia clavipes may be found among rhizome of Carex
Other: minor host/prey

Plant / resting place / among
subaquatic cocoon of Donacia dentata may be found among submerged roots of Carex

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Donacia impressa may be found on Carex
Remarks: season: 4-11

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Donacia obscura feeds on pollen of Carex
Remarks: season: (4-)6(-9)

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Donacia simplex may be found on Carex
Remarks: season: 3-9(-11)

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Donacia thalassina feeds on leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 6-8
Other: uncertain

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Donacia vulgaris may be found on leaf of Carex

Foodplant / secondary infection
colony of Epicoccum dematiaceous anamorph of Epicoccum nigrum secondarily infects fungus-infected Carex
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
Erirhinus aethiops feeds on stem of Carex

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Eurygaster testudinaria sucks sap of Carex
Other: major host/prey

Plant / grows among
fruitbody of Galerina jaapii grows among Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Galerina permixta is saprobic on dead leaf of debris of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Hansfordia dematiaceous anamorph of Hansfordia caricis is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 3-7

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena delectabilis is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia detritica is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of Carex
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Kateretes pedicularius feeds on Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
Kateretes pusillus feeds on Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Kateretes rufilabris feeds on Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, immersed pseudothecium of Leptosphaeria caricis is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella alpestris is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 4-11

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Lichenopeltella nigroannulata is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Limnobaris pilistriata feeds on Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Limnobaris t-album feeds on Carex

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Limonomyces culmigenus parasitises live Carex
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Actinothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Lophodermium apiculatum is saprobic on Carex

Plant / resting place / among
subaquatic cocoon of Macroplea appendiculata may be found among roots of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmiellus vaillantii is saprobic on debris of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius caricis is saprobic on moist debris of Carex
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius pseudocaricis is saprobic on dead, decayed leaf of Carex
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Melanotus phillipsii is saprobic on dead, decayed debris of Carex

Foodplant / miner
larva of Metopomyza scutellata mines leaf of Carex
Other: sole host/prey

Plant / resting place / on
puparium of Metopomyza xanthaspis may be found on leaf of Carex
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia caricina is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 8-12

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena bulbosa is saprobic on dead, decayed, wet debris of Carex
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycocalia denudata is saprobic on dead, wet leaf of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella allicina is saprobic on Carex
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, linearly arranged pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella lineolata is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
extensive, velvety colony of Cladosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Mycosphaerella tulasnei is saprobic on dead, rain-soaked leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked sporodochium of Myrothecium dematiaceous anamorph of Myrothecium masonii is saprobic on Carex
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Niptera pulla is saprobic on dead Carex
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Notaris bimaculatus feeds within shoot of Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
Notaris scirpi feeds on stem of Carex

Foodplant / sap sucker
adult of Pachybrachius fracticollis sucks sap of catkin of Carex
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pachynematus clibrichellus grazes on leaf of Carex
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pachynematus kirbyi grazes on leaf of Carex
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Pachynematus vagus grazes on leaf of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Paraphaeosphaeria michotii is saprobic on dead stem of Carex
Remarks: season: 1-7

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile or short-stalked apothecium of Pezizella eriophori is saprobic on dead, rotting, thinly blackly circumscripted leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 6-7

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, initially immersed pseudothecium of Phaeosphaeria herpotrichoides is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: spring, summer

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Phalacrus caricis feeds on Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Phalacrus substriatus feeds on Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial conidioma of Dinemasporium coelomycetous anamorph of Phomatospora dinemasporium is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
annual, resupinate, drying dark red fruitbody of Physisporinus sanguinolentus is saprobic on dead, decayed, sodden stem (base) of Carex
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / gall
larva of Planetella fischeri causes gall of leaf of Carex

Foodplant / gall
larva of Planetella granifex causes gall of stem of Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Plateumaris affinis feeds on Carex

Plant / resting place / among
cocoon of Plateumaris braccata may be found among root of Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Plateumaris discolor feeds on pollen? of Carex
Remarks: season: (3-)6(-12)
Other: major host/prey

Plant / associate
larva of Platycheirus immarginatus is associated with Carex

Plant / associate
larva of Platycheirus perpallidus is associated with Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
very shortly stalked apothecium of Psilachnum asemum is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / parasite
uredium of Puccinia caricina parasitises Carex

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Puccinia urticata parasitises live Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Resinomycena saccharifera is saprobic on dead, decayed debris of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked, erumpent apothecium of Rutstroemia lindaviana is saprobic on dead, very rotting, fallen, locally blackened leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / parasite
embedded sorus of Schizonella melanogramma parasitises live leaf of Carex

Foodplant / feeds on
very numerous, densely scattered, black, covered, piercing pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria gracillima feeds on leaf of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
linearly arranged, blackish, covered then semi-erumpent pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria lineolata is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 10-3
Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Simocybe centunculus var. laevigata is saprobic on dead, decayed debris of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
loosely gregarious, covered pycnidium of Stagonospora coelomycetous anamorph of Stagonospora gigaspora is saprobic on dead leaf (upper part) of Carex

Foodplant / saprobe
covered pycnidium of Stagonospora coelomycetous anamorph of Stagonospora macropus is saprobic on dead leaf of Carex
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous, scattered or gregarious, immersed in parenchyma pycnidium of Stagonospora coelomycetous anamorph of Stagonospora paludosa is saprobic on dead fruit of Carex
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Trechispora minima is saprobic on dead, decayed debris of Carex

Foodplant / gall
larva of Wachtliella caricis causes gall of inflorescence of Carex

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Known predators

Carex (carex (grass)) is prey of:
Bos taurus
Lepus californicus
Lepus townsendii
Orthoptera
Coleoptera
Hemiptera
Spermophilus

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Grassland)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:5,599Public Records:2,480
Specimens with Sequences:4,701Public Species:640
Specimens with Barcodes:4,622Public BINs:0
Species:870         
Species With Barcodes:785         
          
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex sp4

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex sp3

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex sp2

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex sp1

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Carex cf. canescens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Carex

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