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Description of ChaunacanthidaAcantharea in which the bases of the spicules are elongate, spicules are cross-shaped in cross section, generally serrate on two opposite edges, smooth on the two others. Spicules are basally embedded in a contractile matrix. Endoplasm black or reddish in the cell centre, clearer at the periphery; capsular wall may be very conspicuous; ectoplasm transparent; cortex with a square pattern of elastic junctions; myonemes ribbon-shaped, very long and mobile. Morphogenetic remodeling before gametogenesis leade to a special stage called litholophus. Gamontocyst oblong with small adjacent polygonal plaques forming a wall and two kinds of pores, small pores at the angles of the plaques and large apertures at one pole.