Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Deciduous Forests
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

"Maharashtra: Dhule, Pune, Raigad, Satara, Thane"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, SW Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, S Hunan, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, S Zhejiang [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; N Australia].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: Pakistan, India, Burma, S.E. Ask to N. Maratha.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

"
Field Tips

Bark greenish-grey, smooth. Wood grey and moderately hard.

Flower

A fig, axillary, paired, globose, cream coloured, thick walled.

Fruit

An achene, smooth. Figs ripening by December.

Leaf Apices

Acuminate

Leaf arrangement

Alternate distichous

Leaf Bases

Chordate

Leaf Margins

Entire

Leaf Shapes

Ovate

Leaf Types

Simple

Habit

A large deciduous tree without aerial roots, frequently epiphytic.

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

A large, up to 15 (-20) m tall, deciduous tree with spreading crown. Trunk 1.5-2.5 m in circumference, branches spreading with few to numerous aerial roots, bark grey, young twigs brown, glabrous. Leaves with 2.5-6.5 cm long, articulate petiole; lamina elliptic or ovate-elliptic to ovate-oblong, 645 (18) cm long, 3-8 (-9) cm broad, 3-5-costate at the obtuse-truncate base, margins entire to ± wavy, apex with c. 10-12 mm long acumen; lateral nerves (5-) 7-12 pairs, not prominently bulging, intercostals zigzag; stipules broadly ovate-lanceolate, 10-15 mm long, acute, pubescent. Hypanthodie sessile or on up to 5 mm long peduncles, in ancillary pairs or on twigs below the leaves, creamy-whitish, globose, 8-12 mm in diameter, subtended by 3, broadly ovate-round, glabrous or puberulous basal bracts, apical orifice cloud by 3, minute brads, internal bristles copious, chaffy-vesicular, white. Male flower: sessile ostiolar in 2-3 whorls; sepals 2-3, free or slightly united, acute, stamen solitary, included, with oblong anther. Gall & female flowers: sessile sepals 34, free, spathulate to linear-lanceolate; ovary simile or stipitate, reddish-brown, style subterminal. Figs globose, 12-15 mm in diameter, plait to purple, ultimately black.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Trees, epiphytic when young, with buttress or prop roots, deciduous or semideciduous. Stipules lanceolate-ovate, to 1 cm, apex acute. Petiole 2-5 cm; leaf blade obovate, narrowly lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or elliptic-ovate, 10-20 × 4-7 cm, thinly leathery to thickly papery, not shiny when dry, base bluntly rounded, cuneate, or cordate, margin entire, apex acuminate to shortly acuminate; basal lateral veins short, secondary veins (5-)7-10(-11) on each side of midvein, and abaxially prominent, reticulate veins ± conspicuous. Figs axillary on leafy branchlets, paired or solitary or in clusters on leafless older branchlets, purple red when mature, globose, 7-12 mm in diam., with conspicuous interfloral bristles, sessile or pedunculate; involucral bracts small. Male, gall, and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: few, near apical pore, sessile; calyx lobes 4 or 5, lanceolate; stamen 1; filament short; anther broadly ovoid. Gall flowers: pedicellate; calyx lobes 3 or 4; style lateral, shorter than ovary. Female flowers: similar to gall flowers; style longer than ovary. Achenes wrinkled on surface. Fl. Apr-Aug.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Synonym

Ficus caulobotrya (Miquel) Miquel var. fraseri (Miquel) Miquel; F. glabella Blume; F. saxophila Blume var. sublanceolata Miquel; F. virens var. sublanceolata (Miquel) Corner; F. wightiana Wallich ex Bentham; Urostigma fraseri Miquel; U. infectorium Miquel; U. wightianum Miquel.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Occasional in hills above 800m; in forest. Sri Lanka, India to the Solomon Islands."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common tree by streamsides in subtropical China; 300-2700 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. & Fr. Per.: October-March.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ficus virens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ficus virens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Fruits edible. Bears and tortoises have been observed feeding on the fruit.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Ficus virens

Ficus virens is a plant of the genus Ficus found in India, southeast Asia, through Malaysia and into Northern Australia. Its common name is White Fig; it is locally known as pilkhan and in the Gun-djeihmi language it is called an-borndi. Like many figs, its fruits are edible. One of the most famous specimens of this tree is the Curtain Fig Tree of the Atherton Tableland, near Cairns, a popular tourist attraction.

Curtain Fig Tree in the Atherton Tableland.
Curtain Fig Tree

Ficus virens var. sublanceolata occurs the subtropical rainforest of northeastern New South Wales, and south eastern Queensland in Australia.

Description[edit]

It is a medium sized tree which grows to a height of 24- 27m in New Delhi and up to 32m tall in wetter areas. This tree is a fig tree belonging to the group of trees known as strangler figs, which is because its seeds can germinate on other trees and grow to strangle and eventually kill the host tree.

This tree has become popular as an avenue tree in and around the cities of New Delhi and Noida.

It has two marked growth periods in its Indian environment: in spring (February to early May), and in the time of the monsoon rains (i.e. June to early September). The new leaves are a beautiful shade of reddish pink and very pleasing to the eye.

This is a very massive tree in which the size of the crown can sometimes exceed the height of the tree. the oldest and most massive pilkhan trees in delhi can be seen inside the complex of the Humayuns tomb.

Use as food[edit]

The leaves are known in Thai cuisine as phak lueat (Thai: ผักเลือด). They are eaten boiled as a vegetable in Northern Thai curries.

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ficus virens var. sublanceolata

Ficus virens var. sublanceolata is a banyan or strangler fig. It grows alongside the related white fig in the northern part of its range. They differ with narrower leaves, almost lanceolate in shape. Common names in Australia include white fig, sour fig, deciduous fig and banyan. A large example can be seen north of Murwillumbah beside the old Pacific Highway,[1] not far from the state border with Queensland.

Habitat and range[edit]

It grows as far south as the Clarence River, New South Wales[2] and up through Queensland, Torres Strait, Northern Territory, Western Australia and parts of South East Asia. It is often seen on alluvial soil in riverine rainforest.

Description[edit]

It is a large tree in excess of 30 metres tall, with a trunk diameter exceeding 1.8 metres. It can be semideciduous. Heavily buttressed at the base. The bark is smooth and grey with various bumps and lenticels on the trunk. Small branches smooth, but with scars of leaf stipules. Leaves form with the stipules, and they are shed when the leaf develops.[3]

Leaves[edit]

Alternate on the stem, 5 to 20 cm long, 2.5 to 6 cm wide.[4] Ovate lanceolate in shape, which contrasts to the broader leaves of the white fig. Leaves thin, shiny green above, duller paler green below. Leaves with a short but noticeable tip, often curling to one side. Leaf base somewhat rounded. Leaf stalks narrow and long, 2 to 5 cm in length.

Venation[edit]

Leaf veins prominent, raised and evident on both sides of the leaf. Net veins attractive in pattern and shape near the leaf edge. 8 to 10 lateral veins, creamy green at around 60 degrees to the mid vein.[5]

Reproduction[edit]

Flowers form within a receptacle, a syconium. Flowers pollinated by fig wasps within the fig. The mature fig changes to a white, pinkish or brown colour with red spots, 10 mm in diameter, almost stalkless on the stem.[6] Fruit ripe in Australia mostly June to August, or at all times during the year.

The figs eaten by a large variety of birds including Australasian Figbird, Green Catbird, Lewin's Honeyeater, Topknot Pigeon and Pied Currawong. Regeneration is achieved from fresh seed and cuttings. The marcotting technique of propagation is suited to Ficus virens var. sublanceolata.[7]

Uses[edit]

Suited to parks and large gardens as an ornamental tree. Often seen planted in Australian parks and botanic gardens. The timber is of no commercial use.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.tweed.nsw.gov.au/PlanningDocs/pdfs/tpo/tpo1990SignificantTrees.htm
  2. ^ http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=in&name=Ficus~virens+var.~sublanceolata
  3. ^ Floyd, A.G., Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia, Inkata Press 2008, ISBN 978-0-9589436-7-3 page 234
  4. ^ http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=in&name=Ficus~virens+var.~sublanceolata
  5. ^ Floyd, A.G., Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia, Inkata Press 2008, ISBN 978-0-9589436-7-3 page 234
  6. ^ http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=in&name=Ficus~virens+var.~sublanceolata
  7. ^ Floyd, A.G., Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia, Inkata Press 2008, ISBN 978-0-9589436-7-3 page 234
  8. ^ Floyd, A.G., Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia, Inkata Press 2008, ISBN 978-0-9589436-7-3 page 234
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

It is often planted as a shade tree in the Punjab and N.W.F. Province.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!