Overview

Brief Summary

Citrus hystrix., the Kaffir or makrut lime or papeda, is a small tree in the Papeda subgenus of the Rutaceae (citrus family). Members of this subgenus are characterized by fruits that are inedible, even when ripe, and contain acrid oil droplets in the juice vesicles (pulp cells). Thus, this species is used primarily for its leaves, which are used fresh or dried as an herb to flavor Asian dishes, including soups, stews, curries, and sauces. It is common in the cuisine of Thailand, and provides the characteristic flavor of tom yam soup. The zest and rind may also be used, but the fruit itself has almost no juice, and is primarily used for traditional medicinal purposes. (The lime that is sold fresh or for its juice is from related species, including C. aurantiifolia., the key lime, and C. latifolia, the Persian or Tahitian lime.)

C. hystrix typically grows 3 to 6 m (9.75 to 19.5 ft) tall. The aromatic leaves, which are evergreen, have a distinctive structure, with a winged petiole (leaf stem) that is similar in size to the leaf itself, giving the appearance a laterally divided leaf. The globose flower buds open into fragrant flowers with 4 to 5 petals and around 30 stamens; petals are white with reddish or pink on the outside. The sub-globose to ellipsoid fruit is small, from 3 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in) wide by 5 to 7 cm (2 to 3 in) long--similar in size to slightly larger than a kumquat--with a rough skin with numerous small oil glands, and ripens to lemon yellow.

C. hystrix originated in southeast Asia, but its precise native range has been obscured by a long history of cultivation, along with hybridization. The species and its various hybrids are now cultivated widely throughout the region, from Sri Lanka east to the Phillipines.

(Flora of China 2012, van Wyk 2005)

  • Flora of China. 2012. Vol 11. 3. Citrus hystrix Candolle, Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp. 19, 97. 1813. Accessed on-line 12 March 2012 from http://efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242313263.
  • van Wyk, B.-E. 2005. “Citrus hystrix.Food Plants of the World: An Illustrated Guide. Portland, OR: Timber Press. P. 139.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees 3-6 m tall. Branchlets with spines. Leaves dark red when young; petiole winged, apex rounded to truncate; leaf blade ovate, 5-8 × 2.5-4.5 cm, 1-2.5 cm longer (rarely same length) and 0.5-1 cm wider than winged petiole, tertiary veins conspicuous, margin apically conspicuously and sparsely crenate, apex narrowly obtuse. Inflorescences with (1 or)3-5 flowers; peduncle 1-5 mm. Flower buds globose. Calyx lobes 4 or 5, broadly triangular, ca. 4 × 6 mm. Petals white but pinkish red outside, 7-10 mm. Stamens ca. 30; filaments distinct. Style short, thick. Fruit lemon yellow, ellipsoid to subglobose, 5-7 × 3-5 cm, slightly coarse or smooth, oil dots numerous and prominent, apex rounded; pericarp thick; sarcocarp in 11-13 segments, very acidic and slightly bitter. Seeds numerous 1.5-1.8 × 1-1.2 cm, ridged; embryo solitary; cotyledons milky white. Fl. Mar-May, fr. Nov-Dec.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Citrus auraria Michel; C. echinata Saint-Lager; C. hyalopulpa Tanaka; C. kerrii (Swingle) Tanaka; C. macroptera Montrouzier var. kerrii Swingle; C. papeda Miquel; Fortunella sagittifolia F. M. Feng & P. I Mao; Papeda rumphii Hasskarl.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat & Distribution

N Guangxi, Yunnan [Indonesia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand].
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Citrus hystrix

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Citrus hystrix

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Kaffir lime

The kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), sometimes referred to in English as the makrut lime (see below) or Mauritius papeda,[2] is a fruit native to tropical Asia including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. It is used in Southeast Asian cuisine and the oil from it is used in perfumery.[3]

Common names[edit]

English: makrut lime; French:[4] citron combera, combava, citron ridé; Burmese: tau shauk hka: (တောရှောက်ခါး; pronounced: [tɔ̀.ʃaʊʔ.kʰá]); Indonesian/Malay: jeruk obat, jeruk purut, limau purut; Filipino: kabuyao or cabuyao; Khmer: krô:ch saë:ch;[4] Laos: mak khi hut (ໝາກຂີ້ຫູດ; pronounced [ma᷆ːk.kʰi᷆ː.hu᷆ːt]); Thai: ma krut (มะกรูด; pronounced [ma.krùːt]);[5][6] also known as combava, kieffer lime, makrut lime, or magrood lime. In South Indian cuisine it is used widely and is known as "narthangai".

The Oxford Companion to Food (ISBN 0-19-211579-0) recommends that the name kaffir lime be avoided in favor of makrut lime because Kaffir is an offensive term in some cultures and has no clear reason for being attached to this plant.

Kaffir is a word commonly used among Muslims to denote people of other religions or atheists, meaning that they are not Muslims.[6]

Description[edit]

Large tree.
Illustration of citrus hystrix by abbreviation author Blanco.

Citrus hystrix is a thorny bush, 5-10m tall, with aromatic and distinctively shaped "double" leaves. The makrut lime is a rough, bumpy green fruit. The green lime fruit is distinguished by its bumpy exterior and its small size (approx. 4 cm (2 in) wide).

Uses[edit]

Citrus hystrix Kabuyao (Cabuyao) fruit (left), used in Southeast Asian cooking, with galangal root.
Makrut lime leaves are used in some South East Asian cuisines such as Indonesian, Lao, Cambodian, and Thailand (มะกรูด).

Cuisine[edit]

The rind of the makrut lime is commonly used in Lao and Thai curry paste, adding an aromatic, astringent flavor.[5] The zest of the fruit is used in creole cuisine to impart flavor in "arranged" rums in the Martinique, Réunion island and Madagascar. However, it is the hourglass-shaped leaves (comprising the leaf blade plus a flattened, leaf-like leaf-stalk or petiole) that are used most often in cooking. They can be used fresh or dried, and can be stored frozen. The leaves are widely used in Thai[5] and Lao cuisine (for dishes such as tom yum), and Cambodian cuisine (for the base paste "Krueng"). Makrut lime leaves are used in Vietnamese cuisine with chicken to add fragrance. They are also used when steaming snails to decrease the pungent odor while cooking. The leaves are also used in Indonesian cuisine (especially Balinese cuisine and Javanese cuisine), for foods such as Soto ayam, and are used along with Indonesian bay leaf for chicken and fish. They are also found in Malaysian and Burmese cuisines.[7] The juice is generally regarded as too acidic to use in food preparation. In Cambodia, the entire fruit is crystallized/candied for eating.[4]

Medicinal[edit]

The juice and rinds are used in traditional Indonesian medicine; for this reason the fruit is referred to in Indonesia as jeruk obat ("medicine citrus"). The oil from the rind has strong insecticidal properties. In South India the lime is juiced and the rind is filled with turmeric powder and sea salt and dried under hot Sun. This is used as an accompaniment for "Kanji" when sick.

Other uses[edit]

The juice finds use as a cleanser for clothing and hair in Thailand and very occasionally in Cambodia. Lustral water mixed with slices of the fruit is used in religious ceremonies in Cambodia.

Cultivation[edit]

Citrus hystrix is grown worldwide in suitable climates as a garden shrub for home fruit production. It is well suited to container gardens and for large garden pots on patios, terraces, and in conservatories.

Main constituents[edit]

The compound responsible for the characteristic aroma was identified as (–)-(S)-citronellal, which is contained in the leaf oil up to 80%; minor components include citronellol (10%), nerol and limonene.

From a stereochemical point of view, it is remarkable that makrut lime leaves contain only the (S) stereoisomer of citronellal, whereas its enantiomer, (+)-(R)-citronellal, is found in both lemon balm and (to a lesser degree) lemon grass, (note, however, that citronellal is only a trace component in the latter's essential oil).

Makrut lime fruit peel contains an essential oil comparable to lime fruit peel oil; its main components are limonene and β-pinene.[8][3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "TPL, treatment of Citrus hystrix DC.". The Plant List; Version 1. (published on the internet). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. 2010. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  2. ^ GRIN. "Citrus hystrix DC.". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Ng, D.S.H.; Rose, L.C.; Suhaimi, H.; Mohamad, H.; Rozaini, M.Z.H.; Taib, M. (2011). "Preliminary evaluation on the antibacterial activities of Citrus hystrix oil emulsions stabilized by TWEEN 80 and SPAN 80". International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3 (Suppl. 2). 
  4. ^ a b c Dy Phon Pauline, 2000, Plants Used In Cambodia, printed by Imprimerie Olympic, Phnom Penh
  5. ^ a b c Loha-unchit, Kasma. "Kaffir Lime –Magrood". Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Anderson, L. V. "Is the Name Kaffir Lime Racist?". Slate. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  7. ^ Wendy Hutton, Wendy; Cassio, Alberto. Handy Pocket Guide to Asian Herbs & Spices. Singapore: Periplus Editions. p. 40. ISBN 0-7946-0190-1. 
  8. ^ Kasuan, Nurhani (2013). "Extraction of Citrus hystrix D.C. (Kaffir Lime) Essential Oil Using Automated Steam Distillation Process: Analysis of Volatile Compounds" (PDF). Malyasian Journal of Analytical Sciences 17 (3): 359–369. 
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Notes

Comments

Although apparently native to S China into SE Asia and Malesia, the natural distribution of this species is obscured by cultivation. Selected forms are cultivated throughout the warm parts of the world for their culinary (leaves) and medicinal (fruit) uses. All named taxa (save perhaps some from central Malesia) seem to have been based on cultivated plants as discussed by Mabberley (Gard. Bull. Singapore 54: 173-184. 2002). Commonly seen in China are cultivated plants (the "lime leaves" of commerce) with the following characteristics: leaf blade broadly elliptic, apex obtuse to rounded; fruit subglobose, ca. 4 × 3.5 cm, smooth, apex with a papilla; pericarp ca. 2 mm thick; sarcocarp in 6 or 7 segments, 6-8-seeded but 1 or 2 seeds undeveloped; seeds pyramidal, 1.5-1.8 × 1-1.4 cm, 0.8-1.2 mm thick, with alveolate ridges.
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