Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Summary

Trees along margin of evergreen to semi-evergreen forests up to 1000 m; often planted.
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia and Australia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara Karnataka: Shimoga Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Madurai, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tiruchchirappalli, Tirunelveli"
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Indomalaysia and Australia; in the Western Ghats- throughout.
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Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, S Yunnan [India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees, evergreen, usually 15-20(-45) m tall. Leaves pinnate, 30-60 cm; leaflets 6-17(-30) pairs; petiolule pubescent, 5-7 mm; blades ovate-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 15-20 × 2.5-5.5 cm, thinly leathery, base broadly cuneate or slightly rounded, oblique, margin entire, apex acuminate, abaxially ± shortly pubescent or glabrous. Panicles axillary, ± shortly pubescent, 25-50 cm; bracts small, ovate or deltoid, 5-7 mm, early caducous. Pedicel ca. 2 mm. Calyx abaxially pilose, 5-lobed, lobes shorter than 1 mm, deltoid, as long as tube. Petals 5, glabrous or nearly so, ca. 2.5 × 1-1.5 mm, valvate. Stamens 10, inserted at base of disk; filaments gracile, curved and folded in buds, lower part pilose, 1-3 mm in females, 3-6 mm in males; anthers ca. 1 mm in male, shorter in female. Carpels 3, glabrous, 2-2.5 mm; styles free or connate at base; stigmas 3-lobed, lobes shield-shaped, ca. 2 mm wide. Samarium 4.5-8 × 1.5-2.5 cm, both tops slightly obtuse. Seeds flat, surrounded by wing. Fl. Oct-Nov, fr. Jun-Mar.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Lofty deciduous trees, to 30 m high, bark grey, smooth, lenticellate; blaze pale yellow with reddish-brown sclerotic granules. Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, crowded towards the apex of branches, estipulate; rachis 26.5-52.5 cm long, stout, slightly ridged above, glabrous, swollen at base; leaflets 11-23, opposite or subopposite; petiolule 5-10 mm, slender, glabrous, ridged above; lamina 8.5-17 x 2-6.5 cm, oblong-ovate, oblong-lanceolate or elliptic to lanceolate, base oblique, apex acute or acuminate, margin entire, revolute, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 8-16 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers polygamous, greenish-yellow, in axillary panicles; male flowers: sepal 5, ovate, acute, pubescent, imbricate; petals 5, erect, glabrous, valvate; disc 10-lobed; stamens 10; anthers ovate; pistillode rudimentary, cordate; bisexual flowers: sepals and petals as in male flowers; stamens 2 or 3; disc 10-lobed; ovary 5 partite, superior, ovule 1 in each cell; style connate; stigmas plumose. Fruit a samara, 1-5, oblong, 5-6 x 1.5-2.5 cm, prominently veined, not twisted, reddish-brown with rounded ends."
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Diagnostic

"
Habit

Tall trees up to 15 m tall.

Trunk\bark

Bark greyish, lenticellate; blaze yellow with red speckles.

Branchlets

Young branchlets terete, with scars of fallen leaves; apical bud tomentose.

Leaves

Leaves compound, imparipinnate, alternate, spiral, crowded towards twig ends, to 1 m long; rachis pulvinate, subterete, glabrous; petiolule 0.3-0.7 cm long, glabrous; leaflets 11-21, alternate or suboppoiste, increasing size towards apex, 5-14 x 3-5 cm, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, apex acute or acuminate, base asymetric, margin entire and revolute, glaucous, tomentose beneath when young, later glabrous; midrib raised above; secondary nerves 8-16 pairs, glands present at the fork near margin; tertiary nerves broadly reticulate.

Flowers

Inflorescence terminal or axillary, branched panicles, drooping; flowers small, polygamous, greenish-yellow; pedicel ca. 0.2 cm long.

Fruit& seed

Samara, with large membranouos wings; seed one, pendulous.

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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub or Small Tree
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Synonym

Adenanthera triphysa Dennstedt, Schlüssel Hortus Malab. 32. 1818; Ailanthus malabarica Candolle.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Semi-evergreen forests, also planted in the plains"
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Montane regions, sparse or thick woods, roadsides; below 100-600 m.
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General Ecology

Ecology

Trees along margin of evergreen to semi-evergreen forests up to 1000 m; often planted.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: January-May
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ailanthus triphysa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ailanthus triphysa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Ailanthus triphysa

Ailanthus triphysa (also Ailanthus malabarica) is a medium to tall evergreen rainforest tree in Asia and Australia. The wood may be used for matchwood and plywood. The tree is known as halmaddi in India, where its resin, also called halmaddi, may be used in incense. Inappropriate extraction methods were resulting in trees dying, so by the 1990s the Indian forestry department had banned extraction.

Common names in Australia include white bean and ferntop ash.

Distribution[edit]

It occurs in India, Sri Lanka, China, Malaysia, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Philippines, Indonesia and Vietnam. In Australia, Ailanthus triphysa occurs in Western Australia,[2] Queensland and as far south as the Clarence River (New South Wales).

Description[edit]

A medium to tall evergreen tree to 30 m and diameter of 1.2 m.[3] The trunk is not buttressed, but rather straight and cylindrical. The bark is grey, somewhat rough and resembling sandpaper to the touch. Leaves are pinnate, curved and sickle shaped drawn out to a point. Particularly oblique at the base. Venation is prominent, the net veins more obvious under the leaf. Flowers are creamy green, flowering in November to January in Australia. The fruit is a samara, often forming in threes. Common names in Australia include white bean and ferntop ash.

Ailanthus triphysa leaves with larva of Eligma narcissus moth. Young larvae skeletonise leaflets, while older larvae are defoliators.[4]

Uses[edit]

The timber may be used for matchwood and plywood.[5] When the bark is cut, a sticky resin is exuded, which becomes brittle on drying; this resin may be used for medicinal purposes, and particularly, because of its aromatic nature, it may be burned as incense, either directly, or as an ingredient in incense sticks.[6] In India. the incense resin is named halmaddi, after the local name for the tree itself.[5] Due to crude extraction methods which resulted in trees dying, by the 1990s the Forest Department in India had banned resin extraction; this forced up the price of halmaddi, so its usage in incense making declined.[7][8]

The wood contain various alkaloids and quassinoids, including beta-carboline,[9] and has been used for the treatment of dyspepsia, bronchitis, ophthalmia and snake bite.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved July 7, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Ailanthus triphysa (Dennst.) Alston". FloraBase. Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia.  P1 conservation status
  3. ^ "AgroForestryTree Database". 
  4. ^ hkmoths.com
  5. ^ a b International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1969). Proceedings and Papers of the Technical Meeting. Natural monuments. p. 120. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "Factsheet - Ailanthus triphysa". keys.trin.org.au. 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  7. ^ Devaki Jain (1991). Women's role in dynamic forest-based small scale enterprises. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 27. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  8. ^ Myforest. Forest Department, Karnataka. 1992. p. 144. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  9. ^ Aono Hiroyuki, Kazuo Koike, Jun Kaneko, Taichi Ohmoto (1994). "Alkaloids and quassinoids from Ailanthus malabarica". Phytochemistry 37 (2): 579–584. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(94)85104-2. 
  10. ^ M. F. Roberts (1991). "Ailanthus altissima (the Tree of Heaven): In Vitro Culture and the Formation of Alkaloids and Quassinoids". Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 15: 39–57. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-84071-5_3. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

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