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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

The adult beetles are active between April and September; they fly clumsily (2) and are typically seen in sunny weather. They feed on leaves, fruits, flowers and buds of a range of plants including roses, (hence the common name), and are often perceived as garden pests for this reason (3). The larvae feed on plant roots, and spend the winter hibernating in the soil or inside rotting wood, emerging the following year to pupate. After they emerge as adults they feed for a few weeks, mate and then die (3).
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Description

This beautiful iridescent beetle can occur in a variety of colours; the wingcases or elytra are typically bright green, but they may be darker, variegated or golden. The white marks on the elytra are also highly variable between individuals (2). There is always a V-shaped groove on the back where the upper parts of the elytra meet, and the underside is a coppery colour (3). The rose chafer belongs to the same family as dung beetles, Scarabidae. Chafer is a Middle English word thought to mean 'to gnaw' and relates to the feeding habits of these beetles (4).
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Taxonomy

The rose chafer is part of a group of beetles (Cetoniini) which all can fly with closed forewings (elytra). This is possible due to a tiny slit at the sides of the robust greenish shining forewings and a particularly formed forewing articulation.

Morphology
Adult20 mm (¾ in) long, that has metallic green coloration (but can be bronze, copper, violet, blue/black or grey) with a distinct V shaped scutellum, the small triangular area between the wing cases just below the thorax, and having several other irregular small white lines and marks. The underside is a coppery colour.The metallic green colouring of the beetle's surface is the reflection of mostly circularly polarised light, typically left circularly polarized light. When viewed through a right circular polariser, they appear to be colourless. Many species of scarab beetles (scarabaeidae) are known to emit typically left circularly polarised light.LarvaeThe larvae are C–shaped, have a very firm wrinkled hairy body, a very small head and tiny legs; they move on their backs, which is a very quick way to identify them.
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Introduction

Cetonia aurata the rose chafer beetle are found over southern and central Europe and the southern part of the UK where they can be very localized. The adults are fairly variable in colour from dark green through to some with a more golden-green sheen.Rose chafers are usually seen in sunny weather feeding on the petals of flowers especially roses. Adults can often be seen from early summer and are very quick to take off and fly if disturbed.The larvae feed on decaying leaves and vegetable matter at the soil/litter interface and develop over two to three years.Cetonia aurata are a very beneficial saprophagous species (detritivore), their larvae are the insect equivalent of earth worms and help make very good compost where they are often found in great numbers.
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Comprehensive Description

Cetonia aurata (Linneaus, 1761)

Scarabaeus aurata Linneaus, 1761 - Fauna Europaea (2013)

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordedBy: Silvia Stefanelli ; individualCount: 13 ; lifeStage: adult; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:faunaeur.org:taxname:247076; scientificName: Cetonia aurata; order: Coleoptera; family: Cetoniidae; genus: Cetonia; scientificNameAuthorship: Linnaeus 1761; Location: country: Italy ; stateProvince: Pavia; locality: SIC "Boschi Siro Negri e Moriano" - BN1 ; verbatimElevation: 68 m; verbatimCoordinates: 32T 503258E 5007870N; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM WGS 84; decimalLatitude: 45.224312 ; decimalLongitude: 9.041499 ; georeferencedBy: Silvia Stefanelli; georeferenceProtocol: GPS; Identification: identifiedBy: Giuseppe Carpaneto; dateIdentified: 2011

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordedBy: Silvia Stefanelli ; individualCount: 2 ; lifeStage: adult; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:faunaeur.org:taxname:247076; scientificName: Cetonia aurata; order: Coleoptera; family: Cetoniidae; genus: Cetonia; scientificNameAuthorship: Linnaeus 1761; Location: country: Italy ; stateProvince: Pavia; locality: SIC "Boschi Siro Negri e Moriano" - BN21 ; verbatimElevation: 66 m; verbatimCoordinates: 32T 506342E 5005026N; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM WGS 84; decimalLatitude: 45.198691 ; decimalLongitude: 9.080746 ; georeferencedBy: Silvia Stefanelli; georeferenceProtocol: GPS; Identification: identifiedBy: Giuseppe Carpaneto; dateIdentified: 2011

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordedBy: Silvia Stefanelli ; individualCount: 5 ; lifeStage: adult; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:faunaeur.org:taxname:247076; scientificName: Cetonia aurata; order: Coleoptera; family: Cetoniidae; genus: Cetonia; scientificNameAuthorship: Linnaeus 1761; Location: country: Italy ; stateProvince: Pavia; locality: SIC "Boschi Siro Negri e Moriano" - BN5 ; verbatimElevation: 62 m; verbatimCoordinates: 32T 502886E 5008393N; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM WGS 84; decimalLatitude: 45.229029 ; decimalLongitude: 9.036770 ; georeferencedBy: Silvia Stefanelli; georeferenceProtocol: GPS; Identification: identifiedBy: Giuseppe Carpaneto; dateIdentified: 2011

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordedBy: Silvia Stefanelli ; individualCount: 2 ; lifeStage: adult; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:faunaeur.org:taxname:247076; scientificName: Cetonia aurata; order: Coleoptera; family: Cetoniidae; genus: Cetonia; scientificNameAuthorship: Linnaeus 1761; Location: country: Italy ; stateProvince: Pavia; locality: SIC "Boschi Siro Negri e Moriano" - BN10 ; verbatimElevation: 76 m; verbatimCoordinates: 32T 504479E 5006332N; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM WGS 84; decimalLatitude: 45.210461 ; decimalLongitude: 9.057038 ; georeferencedBy: Silvia Stefanelli; georeferenceProtocol: GPS; Identification: identifiedBy: Giuseppe Carpaneto; dateIdentified: 2011

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordedBy: Silvia Stefanelli ; individualCount: 1 ; lifeStage: adult; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:faunaeur.org:taxname:247076; scientificName: Cetonia aurata; order: Coleoptera; family: Cetoniidae; genus: Cetonia; scientificNameAuthorship: Linnaeus 1761; Location: country: Italy ; stateProvince: Pavia; locality: SIC "Boschi di Vaccarizza" - V1 ; verbatimElevation: 62 m; verbatimCoordinates: 32T 519272E 4999526N; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM WGS 84; decimalLatitude: 45.148947 ; decimalLongitude: 9.245157 ; georeferencedBy: Silvia Stefanelli; georeferenceProtocol: GPS; Identification: identifiedBy: Giuseppe Carpaneto; dateIdentified: 2011

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: recordedBy: Silvia Stefanelli ; individualCount: 3 ; lifeStage: adult; Taxon: taxonID: urn:lsid:faunaeur.org:taxname:247076; scientificName: Cetonia aurata; order: Coleoptera; family: Cetoniidae; genus: Cetonia; scientificNameAuthorship: Linnaeus 1761; Location: country: Italy ; stateProvince: Pavia; locality: SIC "Boschi di Vaccarizza" - V2 ; verbatimElevation: 65 m; verbatimCoordinates: 32T 519868E 4999488N; verbatimCoordinateSystem: UTM WGS 84; decimalLatitude: 45.148589 ; decimalLongitude: 9.252737 ; georeferencedBy: Silvia Stefanelli; georeferenceProtocol: GPS; Identification: identifiedBy: Giuseppe Carpaneto; dateIdentified: 2011

Distribution

Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Britain I., Bulgaria, Channel Is., Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, European Turkey, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Ireland, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad Region, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia Central, Russia East, Russia North, Russia Northwest, Russia South, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine, Yugoslavia, East Palaearctic, Near East ( Fauna Europaea 2013 ).

Notes

The species is very common. The larva develops in the rotten wood of old broadleaves with humus-rich soil. It pupates in late summer and autumn in a cocoon in which the beetle overwinters. The adult appears from April to October on the flowers of various herbs, shrubs, trees, and also sometimes at oozing sap ( Hůrka 2005 ).

  • Stefanelli, Silvia, Della Rocca, Francesca, Bogliani, Giuseppe (2014): Saproxylic beetles of the Po plain woodlands, Italy. Biodiversity Data Journal 2, 1106: 1106-1106, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1106
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Biology

Lifecycle
Adult beetles might emerge in the autumn, but the main emergence is in the spring when they mate. Following mating, the females lay their eggs in decaying organic matter, and then die.Larvae overwinter wherever they have been feeding, that is in compost, manure, leafmould or rotting wood, and they pupate in June/July. Larvae grow very fast, and before the end of autumn they would all have moulted twice. They have a two year life cycle.
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Distribution

Range

This common species is found throughout much of southern and central Europe (3), but becomes more scarce further north (2).
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Distribution habitat

Distribution
Rose chafers are found over southern and central Europe and the southern part of the UK where they can be very localized.Cetonia aurata is a common species throughout much of southern and central Europe but becomes more scarce further north. The species occurs in all Europe except the Iberian Peninsula and Southern Italy and extends its range eastwards to Siberia.Cetonia aurata has very similar looking related species in Spain and Italy, while other representatives of the genus occur in the whole Palearctic.

Habitat
The adults of this species are commonly found in gardens, sitting in flowers.The larvae (also called white grubs) live inside rotting wood and humus and are found in dead tree trunks or compost (in urban habitats).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -1 - 18

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -1 - 18
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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The adults of this species are commonly found in gardens, sitting in flowers. The larvae live inside rotting wood and humus (2).
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Associations

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Cetonia aurata feeds on live leaf of Rosa
Remarks: season: 6

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Cetonia aurata feeds within dead wood of Broadleaved trees

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Cetonia aurata feeds within dead compost of Herbaceous Plants

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Flight
Rose chafers are capable of very fast flight, flying with their wing cases down like bumble bees.The adult beetles are active between April and September; they fly clumsily and are typically seen in sunny weather (hence the common name), and are often perceived as garden pests for this reason.

Feeding
Adult beetles feed on the
  • nectar
  • pollen
  • flowers
  • buds
  • leaves
  • fruits
of different types of flowers
  • roses
  • composites
  • umbellifers
in particular roses from where they get their name.This is where they can be found on warm sunny days, between May and June/July, occasionally to SeptemberLarvae are detritivores feeding on dead plant matter and rotten wood. Larvae spend the winter hibernating in the soil or inside rotting wood, emerging the following year to pupate. After they emerge as adults they feed for a few weeks, mate and then die.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cetonia aurata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Status

Not threatened in Britain (2).
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Conservation

The rose chafer is a protected species in some European countries.The rose chafer can be best protected by a sustainable agriculture and ecological gardening. The best thing you can do for them is to have a compost heap in your garden !
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Threats

This species is not currently threatened in Britain.
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Management

Conservation

Conservation action is not required for this species.
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Wikipedia

Cetonia aurata

Cetonia aurata, called the rose chafer or, sometimes, the green rose chafer or goldsmith beetle, is a beetle, 20 mm (¾ in) long, that has a metallic green colouration and a distinct V-shaped scutellum.

The scutellum is the small V-shaped area between the wing cases; it may show several small, irregular, white lines and marks.

The underside of the beetle has a coppery colour, and its upper side is sometimes bronze, copper, violet, blue/black, or grey.

Cetonia aurata should not be confused with the North American rose chafer, Macrodactylus subspinosus.

The rarely seen noble chafer is very similar to the rose chafer. One way to identify it is to look at its scutellum; on the noble chafer the scutellum is an equilateral triangle, but on the rose chafer it is an isosceles triangle.

Overview[edit]

Rose chafers are capable of very fast flight; they fly with their wing cases down. They pull their feet inside their legs and can push them out, if needed.

They feed on pollen, nectar, and flowers, especially roses. They can be found among roses on warm sunny days from May until June or July, and occasionally as late as September.

Rose chafers are found in southern and central Europe and in the southern part of the United Kingdom, where they sometimes seem to be very localized. They are a very beneficial saprophagous species (detritivores). Their larvae are the insect equivalent of earthworms.

Larvae[edit]

The larvae are C–shaped and have

  • a firm, wrinkled, hairy body,
  • a very small head,
  • and tiny legs.

The larvae overwinter wherever they have been feeding, which may be in compost, manure, leaf mould, or rotting wood. They grow very quickly and will have moulted twice before the end of autumn. They have a two-year life cycle.

They pupate in June or July. Some adult beetles may emerge in autumn, but the main emergence is in spring, when the beetles mate.

After mating, the female beetles lay their eggs in decaying organic matter and then die.

Origin of its color[edit]

The metallic green coloring of the beetle is caused by the reflection of mostly circularly polarised light, typically left circularly polarised light. When viewed through a right circular polariser, the beetle appears to be colorless.[1]

Many species of scarab beetles (scarabaeidae) are known to emit typically left circularly polarised light. (See Circular polarisation in nature.)

In analytical psychology[edit]

A rose chafer with outspread wings. Note that its wing cases are down.

In his book Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, Swiss psychologist C. G. Jung tells this story, starring a Cetonia aurata, as an example of a synchronistic event:

My example concerns a young woman patient who, in spite of efforts made on both sides, proved to be psychologically inaccessible. The difficulty lay in the fact that she always knew better about everything. Her excellent education had provided her with a weapon ideally suited to this purpose, namely a highly polished Cartesian rationalism with an impeccably “geometrical” idea of reality. After several fruitless attempts to sweeten her rationalism with a somewhat more human understanding, I had to confine myself to the hope that something unexpected and irrational would turn up, something that would burst the intellectual retort into which she had sealed herself. Well, I was sitting opposite her one day, with my back to the window, listening to her flow of rhetoric. She had had an impressive dream the night before, in which someone had given her a golden scarab — a costly piece of jewellery. While she was still telling me this dream, I heard something behind me gently tapping on the window. I turned round and saw that it was a fairly large flying insect that was knocking against the window-pane from outside in the obvious effort to get into the dark room. This seemed to me very strange. I opened the window immediately and caught the insect in the air as it flew in. It was a scarabaeid beetle, or common rose-chafer (Cetonia aurata), whose gold-green colour most nearly resembles that of a golden scarab. I handed the beetle to my patient with the words, “Here is your scarab.” This experience punctured the desired hole in her rationalism and broke the ice of her intellectual resistance. The treatment could now be continued with satisfactory results.[2]

In a separate account of the incident in the same book, Jung wrote, “I must admit that nothing like it ever happened to me before or since, and that the dream of the patient has remained unique in my experience.”[3]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hegedüsa, Ramón; Győző Szélb and Gábor Horváth (September 2006). "Imaging polarimetry of the circularly polarizing cuticle of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Rutelidae, Cetoniidae)". Vision Research 46 (17): 2786–2797. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2006.02.007. PMID 16564066. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  2. ^ Jung, C.G. (1969). Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-691-15050-5. 
  3. ^ Jung, C.G. (1969). Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-691-15050-5. 
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