Overview

Distribution

Gansu, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs perennial. Rhizomes horizontal, purple-brown, large, ca. 1.5 cm. Stems erect, 40-100 cm tall, robust, branched. Basal leaves long petiolate; petiole 5-10 cm; leaf blade greenish abaxially, green adaxially, ovate or oblong-ovate, 4-10 × 2-5 cm, abaxially sometimes pubescent along veins, adaxially glabrous, base cordate, margin slightly revolute, apex long acuminate. Cauline leaves shortly petiolate; leaf blade narrowly ovate, smaller; uppermost leaves subsessile or clasping; ocrea brown, tubular, 2-4 cm, membranous, dehiscent at base, not ciliate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, spicate, dense or lax, 2-4 cm, 1-1.3 cm in diam.; bracts brown, ovate, membranous, each 2- or 3-flowered. Pedicels longer than bracts, slender. Perianth red, 5-parted; tepals elliptic or narrowly elliptic, 3-5 × 1.5-2.5 mm. Stamens 8. Styles 3, free; stigmas capitate. Achenes slightly exceeding persistent perianth, black-brown, shiny, ellipsoid, trigonous, 4-5 mm, tapered at both ends.
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Description

Erect, 35-70 (-100) cm tall, branched or simple, glabrous, perennial, long rhizomatous herb. Stem simple or branched, erect, with few leaves. Leaves 3.0-15 x 1.75-10 cm, broadly lancoelate-ovate, serrate, acuminate, ciliate on midrib and margins, cordate or amplexicaule at base, petiole up to 10 cm long. Ochrea 1.5-5.0 cm long, lanceolate, tubular, acuminate, with two to three long acuminate lobes. Inflorescence 1.5-10.0 cm long, terminal, simple (var. speciosa) or branched (var. alba), many flowered, dense pedunculate raceme, peduncles up to 8.0 cm long. Flowers up to 4.0 mm across, pedicel 1-3 mm long. Ochreolae 3-5 mm long, lanceolate, cartilaginous, with long aristate apex and entire margin. Tepals 5, 2-3.5 x 1.5-2.5 mm, lanceolate to ovate, obtuse, entire, unequal. Stamens 8, filaments thick and short, unequal; anthers dark bluish, subexserted to exserted. Ovary 1-2 x 0.25-0.5 (-0.75) mm, lanceolate, trigonous with three, long, filiform winged and free styles and non-prominent stigma. Nuts 3.0-5.5 x 2.0-3.5 mm, ovate, trigonous and unequal lobes, dark brown to black, glabrous, shining.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 70. 1825; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 1886; Kitamura, Fl. Afghan. 89. 1960; Schiman-Czeika & Rech.f., l.c.; R. R. Stewart, l.c. 203; Bhopal & Chaudhri, l.c. 81.
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Ecology

Habitat

Shaded grassy places in valleys, mixed forests on mountain slopes, grassy slopes, forest margins; 1000-3300 m.
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Wikipedia

Persicaria amplexicaulis

Persicaria amplexicaulis (mountain fleece or red bistort) is a species of flowering plant in the family Polygonaceae, native to the Himalayas. It is a damp-loving herbaceous perennial growing to 1.2 m (4 ft) tall and wide, with heart-shaped pointed leaves, downy beneath, and narrow spikes of rose-red or white flowers in summer.[1]

The specific epithet amplexicaulis means "clasping the stem", and refers to the leaves' habit of growing around the stem.[2]

Numerous cultivars have been developed for garden use, including 'Firetail'.[3]

Methyl caffeate, ethyl caffeate and other phenolic compounds can be found in Polygonum amplexicaule var. sinense (Chinese name: Xuesanqi), a widely distributed medicinal plant in China.[4]

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  2. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315. 
  3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Persicaria amplexicaulis 'Firetail'". Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  4. ^ Isolation, identification and determination of methyl caffeate, ethyl caffeate and other phenolic compounds from Polygonum amplexicaule var. sinense. Meixian Xiang, Hanwen Su, Jinyue Hu and Yunjun Yan, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol., 4 May 2011, 5(9), pages 1685–1691 (abstract)
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Notes

Comments

Two varieties are recognized in our region.
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