Overview

Distribution

Anhui, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Russia (Far East)].
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Distribution: Pakistan, India (Sikkim-Bhutan) extending up to Japan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Erect, up to 1 meter tall, simple or branched, perennial herb. Stem branched, branches hollow. Leaves 8-18 x 4-8 cm, ovate and elliptic, entire, acute-acuminate, petiolate, petiole 1-3 cm long. Ochrea 0.75-2.0 cm long, ovate, tubular, ciliate, hispid. Inflorescence 12-40 cm long, lax, few flowered, slender, pedunculate raceme; peduncle 4-6 cm long, hispid. Flowers 2-3 mm across, distant, pedicellate, pedicel 0.5-1.0 mm. Ocreolae 1.0-3.0 mm long, distant, ciliate, hispid. Tepals 4, 2.0-3.5 x 1-1.5 mm, lanceolate, entire, acute. Stamens 5, filaments filiform, exserted. Ovary 0.5-1.0 x 0.25-0.5 mm biconvex, with two long filiform free hooked persistent styles. Nuts 1.5-2.0 x 0.75-1.25 mm biconvex, dark brown, shining, glabrous.
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Description

Herbs perennial. Rhizomes stout. Stems erect, 50-80 cm tall, striate, appressed hispid, swollen at nodes. Petiole 1-1.5 cm, appressed hispid; leaf blade elliptic or narrowly elliptic to ovate, rarely obovate, 6-15 × 4-8 cm, both surfaces appressed hispid, base cuneate, margin entire, apex acute or acuminate; ocrea tubular, 5-10 mm, membranous, shortly ciliate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, 15-35 cm, slender, laxly flowered; bracts funnel-shaped, 2-3 mm, ciliate, 1-3-flowered. Pedicel 3-4 mm. Perianth rose, 4-parted; tepals ovate, ca. 3 mm, accrescent. Stamens usually 5, included. Styles 2, persistent, enlarged and indurate at maturity, 3.5-4 mm, deflexed and hooked at apex, long exserted from perianth. Achenes included in persistent perianth, dark brown, shiny, ovoid, biconvex, smooth. Fl. Aug-Oct, fr. Sep-Nov.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Polygonum filiforme Thunb., Fl. Jap. 163. 1784; P. virginianum auct. non L.: Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 31. 1885; Tovara virginiana auct. non (L.) Rafin.: R.R.Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Pak. Kashm. 216. 1972; T. filiformis (Thunb.) Nakai in Rigakkai, 29 (4): 8. f. 60. 1926.
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Ecology

Habitat

Forests, thickets, valleys; 100-2500 m.
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A Sino-Japanese element, grows between 1000-2500 m.
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Notes

Comments

Generally Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier and A. virginiana (L.) Roberty & Vautier are considered conspecific. However, the former species occurs only in Asia while the latter taxon is found in North America. Besides the geographical distribution the colour of fruiting perianth of both the species is also different.
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