The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Damuth, J. 1993. Cope's rule, the island rule and the scaling of mammalian population density. Nature 365:748-750.
  • Eisenberg, J., K. Redford. 2000. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Freitas, R., P. Da Rocha, P. Simoes-Lopes. 2005. Habitat structrue and small mammals abundances in one semiarid landscape in the Brazilian Caatinga. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, Vol. 22, no. 1: pp. 119-129. Accessed December 01, 2006 at
  • Nowak, R. M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. 5 edition. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Voss, Robert S., and Renate Angermann. 1997. Revisionary Notes on Neotropical Porcupines (Rodentia: Erethizontidae). 1. Type Material Described by Olfers (1818) and Kuhl (1820) in the Berlin Zoological Museum. American Museum Novitates, no. 3214. 1-44
  • Walker, E. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Woods, C. 1984. New World Porcupines. Pp. 688-689 in D Macdonald, ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 1, 1 Edition. New York: Facts on File Publications.
  • Woods, Charles A., and C. William Kilpatrick / Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Infraorder Hystricognathi Brandt, 1855. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vol. 2. 1538-1600


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