Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Secretive and nocturnal, the Phillipine flying lemur spends the day in tree holes, or gripping a tree trunk or branch with its patagium extended over its body like a cloak. It has also been seen curled up in a ball among the palm fronds of a coconut plantation (2). It ventures out of its shelter at dusk, climbs a short distance up a tree and then glides off in search of food (3). It is capable of executing controlled glides of over 100 metres, with little loss in height (2) (3). While gliding, the Philippine flying lemur is vulnerable to fast-flying birds of prey, such as the majestic Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi). However, gliding is by far their most efficient method of locomotion; on the ground they cannot stand erect and are virtually helpless, and in the trees they are skilful, but very slow, climbers and move in a series of lingering hops (2) (3). The Philippine flying lemur feeds on the young, nutritious leaves from a wide range of trees. With its front foot, it pulls a branch towards itself, moving a bunch of leaves within reach (4). Its stomach is specially adapted for ingesting large quantities of leafy vegetation (2) (4), but it also eats buds, flowers and perhaps soft fruits, and obtains sufficient water from its food and by licking wet leaves (2). Gestation in the Philippine flying lemur lasts for around 60 days, after which the female gives birth to one, rarely two, young (2) (3). They are born in an undeveloped state and carried on the mother, even as she glides, until they are weaned at six months. The patagium can be folded near the tail into a soft, warm 'hammock' in which the young can be carried (2). The Philippine flying lemur reaches adult size at two to three years of age (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

The Philippine flying lemur has a strange appearance, and a strange name, as it is neither a true flier, nor a true lemur! It is in fact a rather unique gliding mammal that possesses a distinctive gliding membrane, or patagium, that stretches from the side of the neck to the tips of the fingers and toes, and down to the tip of the tail. The patagium stretches out into the shape of a kite and enables the Philippine flying lemur to glide through the forest for over 100 metres (2) (3). The fur varies greatly in colour and pattern, but generally males are some shade of brown and females are greyish. Both sexes have paler underparts and a shaded, mottled appearance that blends well with the bark of trees (3). The large eyes hint at the flying lemur's nocturnal habits, and they also provide superior vision for accurately judging landings following a glide (2). The Philippine flying lemur has strong, sharp claws with which it anchors itself to a tree trunk or underside of a branch (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Cynocephalus volans occurs on the Philippine islands of Mindanao, Basilan, Samar, Leyte, Bohol.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native ); oceanic islands (Native )

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Philippines, where it is only found in the Mindanao Faunal Region. It has been recorded from the following islands: Basilan, Biliran, Bohol, Dinagat, Leyte, Maripi, Mindanao (Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, South Cotabato, Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces), Samar, Siargao and Tongquil (Heaney . 1998; Rickart et al. 1993; Corbet and Hill 1992).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range

Occurs in the southern Philippines (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Colugos or "flying lemurs" neither resemble lemurs nor do they fly. They are cat-sized and a little smaller than the Malaysian flying lemurs. Fur coloration is usually darker and less spotted than in the Malaysian species. They have huge eyes and faces that resemble those of Old World fruit bats. The head is broad, somewhat like a greyhound's in appearance, with rounded short ears and a blunt muzzle. The limbs are of equal length, with strong sharp claws for climbing, and the toes are connected by webs of skin. This web of skin extends into a distinct structure called a patagium, which stretches from the side of the animal's neck to the tips of the fingers and toes and continues to the very tip of the tail. No other gliding mammal has such an extensive membrane. The arrangement of the unusual and distinctive incisor teeth is similar to that of herbivorous mammals such as cattle or deer. The upper incisors are located on the sides of the jaw and are caniniform, leaving a gap at the front so they do not oppose the forwardly protruded lower incisors. The lower incisors are comb-like with as many as 20 comb tines arising from one root, which may allow scraping and straining food, and also grooming and cleaning the fur. The molars retain a three-cusped insectivore pattern and have a shearing action that includes a large transverse component. This action, and the crenulated enamel of the molars, provide for efficient mastication of plant material. The dental formula is 2/3, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 = 34.

Range mass: 1 to 1.75 kg.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Philippine colugos are entirely arboreal. They live in the multilayered rain forest. They are also often found near coconut and rubber plantations.

Terrestrial Biomes: rainforest

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is common in lowland primary and secondary forest, and in mixed forest and orchard (Rabor 1986; Rickart et al. 1993; Wischusen et al. 1992, 1994; Wischusen and Richmond 1989; L. Heaney et al. unpubl. data). This species can also tolerate disturbed habitats. It feeds on leaves and some fruit.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The Philippine flying lemur inhabits primary forest, secondary forest, coconut groves and rubber plantations in mountainous and lowland areas (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

The diet of Cynocephalus volans consists mainly of leaves, buds, and flowers from a variety of tree species. Most of the time, they prefer young leaves because young leaves contain higher nutritional value than old leaves. They also might eat fruits and sap. In general,they prefer larger trees for foraging because larger trees produce more young leaves and other food sources. They use their enlarged tongue and specialized lower incisors to pick leaves in a cow-like fashion. The stomach is specialized for ingesting large quantities of leafy vegetation. The intestines are long and convoluted. Their intestine can approach 4 meters in length. The pyloric digestive region, the part near the exit to the intestines, is enlarged and divided into compartments. These chambers harbors microorganisms that help break down cellulose and other relatively indigestible carbohydrates.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: tactile ; chemical

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Observations: These are difficult animals to keep in captivity and so little is known about their longevity. There is one report, however, of one animal kept as pet for 17.5 years, after which it escaped (Ronald Nowak 1999).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

Gestation takes 105 days. Usually a single young is produced, but occasionally twins are born. The infant is born in an underdeveloped state (altricial). The infant is carried on the belly of the mother.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; viviparous

Average birth mass: 38.5 g.

Average gestation period: 105 days.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Although Philippine Colugos are not endangered, they are threatened by deforestation and loss of habitat.

US Federal List: threatened

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Gonzalez, J.C., Custodio, C., Carino, P. & Pamaong-Jose, R.

Reviewer/s
Chiozza, F. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern as it has a presumed large population, it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category and although there has been significant deforestation the species persists in degraded habitat. Commercial logging is a threat.

History
  • 1996
    Vulnerable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species is widespread and common and populations are stable (Heaney et al. 1998).

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Deforestation is a threat to this species, especially at lower elevations. Commercial logging of second growth forest is also threat. This widespread destruction of lowland forest makes them somewhat vulnerable, but their ability to persist in disturbed forest makes them a relatively resilient species. Their fur is used for making hats in Bohol (C. Custodio pers. comm. 2006). The species is persecuted in Samar because it is thought to be a bad omen (J.C. Gonzales pers. comm. 2006).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

The Philippine flying lemur is threatened by the loss of its forest habitat, due to logging and the conversion of land for agricultural use (2), and the remaining populations of the Philippine flying lemur now occur in isolated forest fragments (3). The threat of habitat loss is compounded by hunting for its soft fur and meat, which is considered a local delicacy (2). Due to its relatively low rates of reproduction and slow rate of maturation, the Philippine flying lemur is very susceptible to population declines caused by such threats, and recovery from a decline would be slow and difficult (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species is found in a number of protected areas.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

At present there are no known conservation measures in place specifically for the Philippine flying lemur, although a number of organizations are working to conserve the forests of the Philippines. It is thought that the most effective step to take to ensure this unique species' survival is the establishment and enforced protection of reserves within its range (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Philippine colugos are considered by plantation owners as pests since their diet contain fruits, leaves, and flowers.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Philippine colugos are hunted for their meat.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© The Regents of the University of Michigan and its licensors

Source: Animal Diversity Web

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Philippine flying lemur

"Cynocephalus" redirects here. For other uses, see Cynocephalus (disambiguation).

The Philippine flying lemur (Cynocephalus volans), known locally as the kagwang, is one of two species of flying lemurs, the only two living species in the order Dermoptera.[3] Additionally, it is the only member of the genus Cynocephalus. The other species is the Sunda flying lemur. Recent research from genetic analysis suggests that two other species, the Bornean flying lemur and the Javan flying lemur, may exist as well but they have yet to be officially classified as so. Although called a flying lemur, it cannot fly and is not a lemur. Both species of Dermoptera are classified under the superorder Euarchonta which includes the Scandentia and the Primates as well as an extinct order of mammals, the Plesiadapiformes.[4]

Habitat[edit]

The Philippine flying lemur is endemic to the southern Philippines.[5] Its population is concentrated in the Mindanao region and Bohol. Colugos live in heavily forested areas, living mainly high up in the trees in lowland and mountainous forests or sometimes in coconut and rubber plantations, rarely coming down to the ground. [5] The types of forests they inhabit are mainly primary and secondary forests.[6] A primary forest is an undisturbed, matured forest that has been existing for a long amount of time and a secondary forest is a regrowing forest that has not yet reached a mature status after a major disturbance such as a fire or deforestation.

Physical features[edit]

Cynocephalus Volans

An average Philippine flying lemur weighs about 1 to 1.7 kg (2.2 to 3.7 lb) and is 14 to 17 in (36 to 43 cm) long. The species does exhibit sexual dimorphism where females are a bit larger than males. It has a wide head and rostrum with a robust mandible for increased bite strength, small ears, and big eyes with unique photoreceptor adaptations adapted for its nocturnal lifestyle. The large eyes allow for excellent vision which the colugo uses to accurately jump and glide from tree to tree. [7] It has an avascular retina which is not typical of mammals suggesting that this is a primitive trait; but on par with other nocturnal mammals, specifically nocturnal primates, the rod cells in the eye make up about 95-99% of the photoreceptors and cones make up about 1-5%.[4]Its clawed feet are large and sharp with an incredible grip strength, allowing them to skillfully, but slowly climb trees, hang from branches, or anchor themselves to the trunk of a tree. [7] One unique feature of the colugo is the patagium, or the weblike membrane that connects its limbs to allow for gliding. Unlike other mammals with patagia, its patagium extends from the neck to the limbs, in between digits, and even behind the hind limbs and the tail. Their keeled sternum, which is also seen in bats, aids in their gliding efficiency. [5] Its patagium is the most extensive membrane used for gliding in mammals and also functions as a hammock-like pouch for their young. This membrane helps it glide distances of 100 m or more, useful for finding food and escaping predators, such as the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) and tree-climbing snakes who try to attack the colugos when they glide between trees.[8][9] The dental formula of Philippine flying lemur is 2/3, 1/1, 2/2, 3/3 with a total of 34 teeth. The first two lower procumbant incisors are pectinate with up to 15 tines which are thought to be used for grooming and grating food. [5] The upper incisors are small and have spaces between them as well. [5]The deciduous teeth are serrated until they are lost and then they are replaced with blade like teeth, designed to shear along with the molars that also have long shearing crests to help break down the plant matter they are ingesting.[10] Following mechanical digestion, the digestive tract of the Philippine flying lemur, especially the stomach, is specially adapted to break down and process the large amount of leaves and vegetation they ingest.[7] Colugos also have a brownish grey-and-white pelage that they use as camouflage amongst the tree trunks and branches which allows them to better hide from predators and hunters alike. [5]

Diet[edit]

The Philippine flying lemur is a folivore eating mainly young leaves and occasionally soft fruits, flowers, and plant shoots. They also manage to obtain a significant amount of their water from licking wet leaves and from the water in the plants and fruits themselves.[7] Most of their nutrition is obtained from jumping and gliding between trees high in the canopy; rarely do they eat on the forest floor.

Behavior[edit]

The Philippine flying lemur is arboreal and nocturnal and usually resides in primary and secondary forests. However, some wander into coconut, banana, and rubber plantations as deforestation for farming and industry is an increasingly prevalent problem. The colugo sleeps in hollow trees or clings onto branches in dense foliage during daytime. [9] When they engage in this hanging behavior from branches, they keep their heads upright, unlike bats. [5] On the ground, colugos are slow and clumsy, and not able to stand erect so they rarely leave the canopy level of the forest where they glide from tree to tree to get to food or their nests which are also high in the trees. But, in the trees colugos are quite effective climbers, even though they are slow; they move in a series of lingering hops as they use their claws to move up the tree trunk.[7] Foraging only at night, colugos on average forage for 9.4 minutes about 12 times per night. [5] Colugos typically leave their nests at dusk to begin their foraging activity. [6] When foraging, returning to the nest, or just moving around, the Philippine flying lemur uses its patagium to glide from tree to tree. But, the patagium is also used for cloaking the colugo when it is clinging to a tree trunk or branch and sometimes they are even seen curled up in a ball, using their patagium again as a cloaking mechanism among palm fronds often in coconut plantations. [7]

Patagium seen on museum specimen colugo

Colugos maintain height in the trees to avoid predators that may live in lower levels but they are still susceptible to other predators that can reach these higher levels of the canopy and predatory birds who can attack from above. They live alone, but multiple may be seen in the same tree where they maintain their distance from one another and are very territorial of their personal areas. [9] Even though they are not social mammals, they do engage in a unique semi-social behavior where colugos living in the same relative area or tree follow each other's gliding paths through the trees in search of food. [9] This may be a defense mechanism where, as a population, the safest route possible is determined and shared as a sort of cooperative mechanism for increased survival rates. The only time colugos will actually live socially is after a mother has given birth; then she will care for and live with her offspring until they no longer need to lactate, at that point the offspring is on his own. [9] The average lifespan of the Philippine flying lemur is unknown.

Reproduction[edit]

Little is known about the reproductive behavior in colugos. The female Philippine flying lemur usually gives birth to one young after a two-month gestation period.[6] The young is born undeveloped and helpless and it attaches itself to its mother's belly, in a pouch formed from the mother's tail membrane. They are eventually weaned off at around 6 months and they leave their mother's patagium [6] Adult size and sexual maturity is reached between two to three years of age.[7]Mating usually occurs somewhere between January and March. [9]

Conservation[edit]

Mother with infant

Due to the phylogenetic, morphological, and ecological uniqueness of the order Dermoptera, conservation efforts in respect to this species are highly important and must be reassessed and continued, especially due to the recent discoveries of the potential new Bornean and Javan species that are genetically and morphologically different.[11] The IUCN 1996 had declared the species vulnerable owing to the destruction of lowland forests and to hunting, but it was downlisted to Least Concern in 2008. The 2008 IUCN report indicates the species persists in the face of degraded habitat, with its current population large enough to avoid the threatened category.[1] Since colugos have limited dispersal abilities, they are increasingly vulnerable as deforestation is occurring at increasingly higher rates.[11] Other threats to the species include hunting by the farmers of they plantations they sometimes invade where they are considered pests, since they eat fruits and flowers. In local cultures their flesh is also cooked as a delicacy; other uses of the colugo vary in different regions of the Philippines. In Bohol and their fur is used as material for native hats, but in Samar the species is considered a bad omen and are killed either to be used as a warning or to get rid of the omen. [1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Gonzalez, J. C., Custodia, C., Carino, P. & Pamaong-Jose, R. (2008). Cynocephalus volans. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
  2. ^ Linnæus, Carl (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (in Latin) (10 ed.). Holmiæ: Laurentius Salvius. p. 30. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  3. ^ Stafford, B. J. (2005). "Order Dermoptera". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  4. ^ a b Moritz, Gillian L.; Lim, Norman T.-L.; Neitz, Maureen; Peich, Leo; Dominy, Nathaniel J. (2013). "Expression and Evolution of Short Wavelength Sensitive Opsins in Colugos: A Nocturnal Lineage That Informs Debate on Primate Origins". Journal of Evolutionary Biology 40 (4): 542–553. doi:10.1007/s11692-013-9230-y. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Feldhamer, George A.; Drickamer, Lee C.; Vessey, Stephen H.; Merritt, Joseph F.; Krajewski, Carey. Mammalogy: Adaptation, Diversity, Ecology (3 ed.). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 253–254. ISBN 978-0--8018-8695-9. 
  6. ^ a b c d Nowak, R.M. (1999) Walker’s Mammals of the World. Sixth edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g MacKinnon, K. (2006) Colugos. In: Macdonald, D.W. (Ed) The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  8. ^ "Philippine Eagle" (Video). Retrieved 22 November 2012. Philippine eagle hunting and catching flying lemur 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Philippine Flying Lemur (Colugo)." Encyclopedia Of Animals (2006): 1. Middle Search Plus. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.
  10. ^ Stafford, Brian J.; Szalay, Frederick S. (2000). %3E2.0.CO%3B2 "CRANIODENTAL FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF DERMOPTERANS". Journal of Mammalogy 81 (2): 360–385. Retrieved Dec 3, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Janecka, Jan E.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Lim, Norman T.-L.; Baba, Minoru; Izawa, Masako; Boeadi, Boeadi; Murphy, William J. (2008). "Evidence for multiple species of Sunda colugo". Current Biology 18 (21): R1001–R1002. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!