Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is restricted to the Lac Tsimanampetsotsa region of south-western Madagascar. It has been recorded from the edge of the Mahafaly Plateau north and further south to near the Linta River (Goodman 2003; Mahazotahy et al. 2006). The altitudinal range is 35-145 m (Mahazotahy et al. 2006). A recent model calculated the range at 442 km² (Mahazotahy et al. 2006).
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Geographic Range

Giant-striped mongooses (Galidictis grandidieri) are found in the spiny desert region of southwestern Madagascar, also known as the Didlerea-Euphorbia thicket. At one time they were found in the Itampolo area and were thought to exist in the Mahafaly Plateau region also. Most recently, they were found in the Tsimanampetsotsa Reserve. The total area of occupation by this species is documented at 43,200 ha.

Biogeographic Regions: ethiopian (Native )

Other Geographic Terms: island endemic

  • Goodman, S. 1996. A Subfossil Record of Galidictis grandidieri (Herpestidae: Galidiinae) from Southwestern Madagascar. Mammalia, 60 (1): 150-151.
  • Wozencraft, W. 1986. A New Species of Striped Mongoose from Madagascar. Journal of Mammology, 67 (3): 561-571.
  • IUCN. 2002. "2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line ). Accessed 11/02/02 at http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=8834.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Giant-striped mongooses are much larger than other Malagasy mongooses. Galidictis grandidieri is approximately 32 to 40 cm in length and weighs about 499 to 589 g. The tail is 28 to 30 cm long.

The species is known for its light brown, creamy colored hair. Individuals are marked with eight dark stripes running longitudinally down the back. The stripes are narrower than the spaces in between the stripes. They originate at the base of the ears and follow the body to the base of the tail. This species of mongoose also has longer legs and larger feet than any of the other Malagasy mongooses. There is currently no published information that indicates that giant striped mongooses are sexually dimorphic. Males and females look the same, but a scent pouch is present in the females. Juveniles appear to look much the same as adults as well, except for the difference in size.

The skull of G. grandidieri is larger than that of other mongooses, and has a well-developed sagittal crest and a short supraorbital process. The term robust is often used to describe the skull of this species.

The dental formula for G. grandidieri is 3/3, 1/1, 3-4/3, 2/2 = 36-38. Galidictis grandidieri differs from its close relative Galidictis fasciata in that G. grandidieri has a wider rostrum at the canines, a longer mandible, and longer premolars. The canines of mongooses closely occlude with one another and are good for shearing. The conical crushing teeth of this species are much like the teeth of crab-eating mongooses of India.

Range mass: 499 to 589 g.

Range length: 32 to 40 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This nocturnal, terrestrial species is found in dry spiny tropical forest and shrubland and at the edge of the forest in areas disturbed by cattle grazing. Animals spend daylight hours asleep in burrows or holes that are prevalent in the fissured limestone substrate characteristic of its habitat. While little is known about reproduction in this species, it appears to breed continously (Goodman 2003).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Giant-striped mongooses are found in the spiny desert region of southwestern Madagascar, classified as subtropical or tropical dry, which receives only 10 to 40 cm of rain per year. Vegetation of the spiny desert includes species of Euphorbia and Pachypodium. Much of the vegetation has sharp spines and/or thorns, making it very inhospitable to humans and difficult for researchers to navigate. The Tsimanampetsotsa Reserve is at an elevation of 38 to 114 m and experiences temperaturesof up to 47 degrees C.

Range elevation: 38 to 114 m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: desert or dune

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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Giant-striped mongooses eat invertebrates, especially giant hissing cockroaches and scorpions. However, due to the strong crushing teeth and massive skull, scientists suspect that the species also eats rodents and lizards. This species forages singly and in pairs.

Animal Foods: insects

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Giant-striped mongooses act as a predator on invertebrates and is probably a prey species for the catlike fossa.

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Predation

There are no documented predators of G. grandidieri. The only possible predator in its known range is the cat-like fossa, which is a member of the civet family. Because of the thorny vegetation found in the habitat of this species, avian predators are unlikely.

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Known prey organisms

Galidictis grandidieri preys on:
Insecta

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

There has been no documentation of the methods of communication used by giant-striped mongooses or of other mongooses of the genus Galidictis. These animals are known to produce odors, and females have well developed scent pouches. These presumably function in communication. Other mongooses have communication through body postures and through tactile interactions. It is likely that this species is similar. Vocalizations may also be used.

Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

There is currently no documented information about the lifespan or longevity of giant-striped mongooses.

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Reproduction

Giant striped mongooses live in pairs and breed year round. The breeding system is apparently monogamous, although reproduction in this species has not yet been studied in depth.

Mating System: monogamous

Giant-striped mongooses breed year round and produces one offspring per year.

Although other details on the reproduction of G. grandidieri are lacking, other species of mongoose on Madagascar have gestation lengths of 72 to 92 days (Galidia elegans) and 90-105 days (Muncgotictis decemlineata). Both of these species produce a single young which weighs about 50 g at birth. Malagasy broad striped mongooses probably fall within this range of variation.

Although maturation in G. grandidieri has not been reported, in other species of Malagasy mongooses, physical maturity is attained between 1 and 2 years of age, and sexual maturity seems to occur around 2 years of age.

Breeding interval: Giant-striped mongooses breed annually.

Breeding season: This species apparently breeds year round.

Average number of offspring: 1.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); viviparous

No specific studies have been conducted on the development of G. grandidieri, but it seems that it is similar to that of other members of the mongoose family. Mothers typically care for somewhat altricial young in a den or burrow of some sort, providing them with protection, grooming, and food in the form of milk. Because this species lives in monogamous pairs, it is likely that the father assists the mother in care of the young, although this has not been documented. Mongoose juveniles have been observed with their mothers during later stages of their development, but at what age they eventually break away from their mothers has not been documented in this species.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; pre-fertilization (Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)

  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, Sixth Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Wozencraft, W. 1990. Alive and Well in Tsimanampetsotsa. Natural History, 12/90: 28-30.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Hawkins, A.F.A.

Reviewer/s
Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team) & Duckworth, J.W. (Small Carnivore Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Endangered as the range of this species is less than 500 km², effectively representing a single location, and there is a continuing decline in the extent of occurrence and habitat quality as a result of habitat degradation taking place at the edge of its restricted range (compounded by predation by non-native predators). The total population is estimated at 2,650 and 3,540 individuals (including immatures), with all individuals confined to the area around Lac Tsimanampetsotsa.

History
  • 2000
    Endangered
  • 1996
    Endangered
  • 1994
    Rare
    (Groombridge 1994)
  • 1990
    Insufficiently Known
    (IUCN 1990)
  • 1988
    Insufficiently Known
    (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
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At this time, giant-striped mongooses have only been documented in the spiny desert of southwestern Madagascar. They appear to be generally abundant in that area, however with habitat loss that comes with increased development, and the extraction of wood from its habitat, the population size of the giant striped mongoose has begun to decline. There is still much research to be done on this species to determine size of the population and risk of extinction. For now, researchers will try to preserve as much of the spiny desert of southwestern Madagascar for the giant-striped mongoose and the other animals and plants endemic to that region.

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered

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Population

Population
Described only in 1986, this species appears to be locally common in pristine forest (Goodman 2003). The population size of this species is estimated at between 2650 and 3540 individuals (including juveniles) (Mahazotahy et al. 2006).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species has a limited range, and its habitat is threatened by livestock grazing and clearance for maize cultivation. The western part of the area in which it is found is reasonably inhospitable to human encroachment (Goodman 2003). It is probably at risk of predation by non-native carnivores, especially dogs.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The only protected area within range is Tsimanampetsotsa National Park. Further studies are needed into the ecology of this species, as well as the extent of threats.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There is no known documentation of the economic importance of G. grandidieri.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

There is no known documentation of the economic importance of G. grandidieri. Because it lives in inaccessible habitat, it is unlikely to have any positive impact on human economies.

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Wikipedia

Grandidier's mongoose

Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), also known as the giant-striped mongoose or Grandidier's vontsira, is a small mammal that lives only in a very small area of Southwestern Madagascar, in areas of spiny forest vegetation. It is a pale brown or grayish coloured mongoose, with eight wide, dark stripes on its back and sides. Grandidier's mongoose is larger than the related Broad-striped Malagasy Mongoose, G. fasciata, and its stripes are not as wide. The species is named after Alfred Grandidier.

This species has been called one of the rarest carnivores in the world.[2] With a few exceptions, the majority of records of G. grandidieri come from a narrow zone at the western edge of the Mahafaly Plateau in the Parc National de Tsimanampetsotsa, making it the Madagascan carnivore with the smallest range.

Nocturnal and crepuscular, this mongoose lives in pairs which produce one offspring a year, in the summer. They hunt primarily by searching through ground litter and in rock crevices. The diet of Grandidier's mongoose varies markedly between the dry and wet seasons. Whereas food consists mainly of invertebrates throughout the year, small vertebrates are the most important food by biomass, comprising 58% during the dry season and 80% during the wet season. Grandidier's mongoose weighs 1.1 to 1.3 lb (500 to 600 g).[3]

The species is sympatric with two other carnivores, the fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) and the introduced Indian civet (Viverricula indica). However, there seems to be virtually no range or dietary overlap between these animals and Grandidier's mongoose. From sub-fossil evidence, it is clear that the region underwent drastic climatic change during the last 3000-2000 years. It is presumed that the distribution of this mongoose was notably broader and the proportion of prey types different in earlier times than today. Grandidier's mongoose must have adapted to dryer conditions, which have resulted in its very limited distribution and the exploitation of notably small prey.[3]

The animals can be vocal, with a cooing mew, and are described as sociable and playful.[2]

References

  1. ^ Hawkins, A.F.A. (2008). Galidictis grandidieri. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 22 March 2009. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangered
  2. ^ a b BBC, Island of Marvels, Part 3.
  3. ^ a b R. Andriatsimietry et al. (2009): Seasonal variation in the diet of Galidictis grandidieri Wozencraft, 1986 (Carnivora: Eupleridae) in a sub-arid zone of extreme south-western Madagascar. Journal of Zoology 279 (4):410-415. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00633.x
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