The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • 10. Blake, S. and Inkamba-Nkulu, C. (2004) Fruit, Minerals, and Forest Elephant Trails: Do All Roads Lead to Rome?. Biotropica, 36 (3): 392 - 401.
  • 11. Cornell Lab of Ornithology – The Elephant Listening Project (February, 2006) http://www.birds.cornell.edu/brp/elephant/ELPFAQ.htmlhttp://www.birds.cornell.edu/brp/elephant/ELPFAQ.html External link.
  • 12. Blanc, J. (2006) Pers. Comm.
  • 13. National Geographic News (September, 2002) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/08/0824_twoelephants.htmlhttp://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/08/0824_twoelephants.html External link.
  • 14. IUCN African Elephant Specialist Group – Regional Strategy for the Conservation of Elephants in Central Africa (February, 2006) http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sgs/afesg/tools/pdfs/str_afc0512_fr.pdfhttp://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/sgs/afesg/tools/pdfs/str_afc0512_fr.pdf External link.
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  • 4. Convention on Migratory Species (January, 2006) http://www.cms.int/http://www.cms.int/ External link.
  • 5. IUCN African Elephant Specialist Group (AfESG): Statement on the Taxonomy of extant Loxodonta (February, 2006) http://www.iucn.org/afesg/tools/pdfs/pos_genet_en.pdfhttp://www.iucn.org/afesg/tools/pdfs/pos_genet_en.pdf External link.
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  • 9. Eltringham, S.K. (1997) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Elephants. Salamander Books Ltd, London.
  • Berger, L. 2001. "Opinion: How Do You Miss a Whole Elephant Species?" (On-line). National Geographic. Accessed September 23, 2008 at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/12/1217_leeelephant.html.
  • Douglas-Hamilton, O. 2008. "Africa's Elephants: Can They Survive?" (On-line). National Geographic. Accessed September 23, 2008 at http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/09/africa-elephant/douglas-hamilton-text/12.
  • Dudley, J., A. Mensah-Ntiamoah, D. Kpelle. 1992. Forest elephants in a rainforest fragment: preliminary findings from a wildlife conservation project in southern Ghana. African Journal of Ecology, 30/20: 116-126.
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  • Emmons, L. H., A. Gautierhion, and G. Dubost. 1983. Community Structure of the Frugivorous Folivorous Forest Mammals of Gabon. Journal of Zoology 199:209-222.
  • Fay, M., M. Agnagna. 1991. A population survey of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in northern Congo. African Journal of Ecology, 29/3: 177-187.
  • International Elephant Foundation, 2008. "Loxodonta" (On-line). International Elephant Foundation. Accessed January 02, 2009 at http://www.elephantconservation.org/loxodonta.php.
  • Kingdon, J. 1979. East African Mammals: Large Mammals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Accessed November 06, 2008 at http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=xdH_Gi92-fAC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=loxondonta+cyclotis+reproduction&ots=6l08Vsiceu&sig=Fuy-_JFSeH2vGLmMgqIAgt3jCRg#PPP1,M1.
  • Laursen, L., M. Bekoff. 1978. Loxodonta africana. Mammalian Species, 92: 1-8.
  • Macdonald, D., S. Norris. 2001. Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File Inc..
  • Marechal, C., C. Maurois, and C. Chamberlan. 1998. Size (and structure) of forest elephants groups (Loxodonta africana cyclotis Matschie, 1900) in the Odzala National Park, Republic of Congo. Mammalia 62:297-300.
  • McComb, K., D. Reby, L. Baker, C. Moss, S. Sayialel. 2003. Long-distance communication of acoustic cues to social identity in African elephants. Animal Behaviour, 65/2: 317-329.
  • Merz, G. 1986. Counting elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in tropical rain forests with particular reference to the Tai National Park, Ivory Coast. African Journal of Ecology, 24: 61-68.
  • Merz, G. 1986. Movement patterns and group size of the African forest elephant Loxodonta africana cyclotis in the Tai National Park, Ivory Coast.. African Journal of Ecology, 24/2: 133-136.
  • Morgan, B., P. Lee. 2003. Forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) stature in the Reserve de Faune du Petit Loango, Gabon. Journal of Zoology, 259: 337-344.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Roca, A., N. Georgiadis, J. Pecon-Slattery, S. O'Brien. 2001. Genetic Evidence for Two Species of Elephant in Africa. Science, 293: 1473 - 1477.
  • Roca, Alfred L., Nicholas Georgiadis, Jill Pecon-Slattery, and Stephen J. O'Brien. 2001. Genetic Evidence for Two Species of Elephant in Africa. Science, vol. 293
  • Roca, Alfred L., Nicholas Georgiadis, Jill Pecon-Slattery, and Stephen J. O'Brien. 2001. Genetic Evidence for Two Species of Elephant in Africa. Science, vol. 293. 1473-1477
  • Short, J. 1981. Diet and Feeding-Behavior of the Forest Elephant. Mammalia 45:177-185.
  • Sukumar, R. 2003. The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Tangley, L. 1997. In Search of Africa's Forgotten Forest Elephant. Science, 275: 1417 - 1419.
  • Theuerkauf, J., W. E. Waitkuwait, Y. Guiro, H. Ellenberg, and S. Porembski. 2000. Diet of forest elephants and their role in seed dispersal in the Bossematie Forest Reserve, Ivory Coast. Mammalia 64:447-459.
  • Vogel, G. 2001. African Elephant Species Splits in Two. Science, 293: 1414.
  • Walsh, P., L. White. 1999. What It Will Take to Monitor Forest Elephant Populations. Conservation Biology, 13: 1194-1202.
  • Weber, W., L. White, A. Vedder. 2001. African Rain Forest Ecology & Conservation. Pp. 207-213 in A Turkalo, J Fay, eds. Forest Elephant Behavior and Ecology. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Accessed October 09, 2008 at http://books.google.com/books?id=iNwfN5ASigUC&pg=PA207&dq=african+forest+elephant&sig=ACfU3U2WknR4HRncZd6lRBLtwCRxOrCG-A#PPT1,M1.
  • White, L., C. Tutin, M. Fernandez. 1993. Group composition and diet of forest elephants, Loxodonta africana cyclotis Matschie 1900, in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. African Journal of Ecology, 31: 181-199.
  • Wiese, R., K. Willis. 2004. Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive elephants. Zoo Biology, 23/4: 365-373. Accessed December 11, 2008 at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/109580436/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2
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  • de Magalhaes, J., J. Costa, O. Toussaint. 2005. "HAGR: the Human Ageing Genomic Resources." (On-line). An Age entry for Loxodonta africana. Accessed December 11, 2008 at http://genomics.senescence.info/species/entry.php?species=Loxodonta_africana.

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