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Macrohabitat: Lowlands, 20-300 meters altitude, on the forest floor with steep slopes and relatively closed canopy. Microhabitat: Adults are ground-dwelling on the forest floor with deep leaf litter in mixed conifer-deciduous forests. Dispersal abilities: Brachypterous, hence flightless thus vagility limited to walking or running; moderately fast runner. Seasonal occurrence: Adults are active in March- October. Behavior: Adults are mainly nocturnal, but also active on cloudy days; at low temperatures taking cover under logs, fallen trees, and other forest floor detritus. Larval burrows are clustered in open clay substrate of trails, clearings, and road cuts. Mandibles of adult males are specifically shaped to hold females during copulation and have been considered secondary sex organs. (Pratt, 1939; van den Berghe, 1990; Freitag, 1999; Larochelle & Lariviere, 2001; Pearson et al., 2006)


Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Erwin, Terry

Source: Western Hemisphere Caraboidea

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