Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Dry Deciduous Forests"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Pathanamthitta, Malappuram, Wayanad

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"Karnataka: N. Kanara Kerala: Malapuram, Pathanamthitta Tamil Nadu: Dharmapuri, Nilgiri, Tiruchchirappalli"
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S Yunnan [Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Himalaya (Nepal), India, Burma, Indo-China, Malaya.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Elevation Range

200-1200 m
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Description

Trees 5-15 m tall. Branchlets sparsely pubescent when young, glabrescent. Leaves 3-foliolate; petiole 4-7 cm; petiolules 5-12 mm; leaflets broadly lanceolate to oblong, glabrous, abaxially densely glandular, base cuneate and slightly oblique, margin entire or slightly undulate and ciliate, apex acuminate to acute; central leaflet 10-15 X 4-5 cm. Thyrses 7-17 cm; bracts linear, early deciduous. Calyx 1.8-2.5 cm, outside pubescent and glandular, inside glabrous. Corolla white, outside puberulent, lower lip pilose inside. Stamens included; filaments glabrous. Ovary glabrous. Fruiting calyx minutely 5-dentate to subtruncate. Fruit black, subglobose, ca. 7 mm in diam., with longitudinal veins when dry. Fl. and fr. Jul-Aug.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Tree, 7-18 m high; stem and branches slender, obtusely 4-angular or subterete; young parts pubescent, glabrous when mature; nodes annulate; internodes 2.5-6 cm long. Leaves usually 3, rarely 4-foliolate; petioles flattened, slender, 5-10 cm long, pubescent; leaflets lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or narrow-elliptic, acuminate or attenuate at base, entire somewhat undulate along margins, acuminate at apex; middle leaflets 10-20 x 3-5 cm; petiolules 0.5-1.5 cm long; lateral leaflets 8.5-15 x 3-4 cm; petiolules 0.5-1 cm long; chartaceous, subglabrous or glabrous above, with dense minute rounded yellow resinous glands beneath; lateral nerves 18-22 pairs, distinct beneath. Panicles axillary, 20-28 cm long; peduncles flattened, slender, 6.5-14 cm long, densely pubescent; bracts linear, ca 1 mm, pubescent. Flowers numerous; pedicels 1-2 mm long. Calyx campanulate, minutely 5-toothed with minute rounded yellow glands outside. Corolla infundibular, 2-lipped, 5-lobed, yellow or cream-coloured; upper lip 2-lobed; lobes ovate, ca 1 mm long; lower lip 3-lobed; midlobe suborbicular or ovate, entire, obtuse, ca 2 mm long; lateral lobes oblong, acute, ca 1.2 x 1 mm; tube narrow, ca 2 x 2 mm, grey-pubescent with rounded resinous glands outside. Stamens 4, didynamous; filaments slender, 2-3 mm long, included, sparsely hairy at base; anthers oblong, ca 0.7 mm, divaricate, basifixed. Ovary globose, ca 1 mm, glabrous; style stout, ca 3 mm long; stigma 2-lobed. Drupes globose, ca 0.7 cm, red; fruiting-calyx platelliform, ca 1 cm across, membranous, glabrous."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Moist deciduous forests near streams
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Mixed forests; 600-1200 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: February-April
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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