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SummaryGeoemyda japonica (Family Geoemydidae), the Ryukyu black-breasted leaf turtle, is a rather small turtle endemic to three islands (Okinawajima, Kumejima, and Tokashikijima) of the Okinawa Group, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, and is found only in and around primary or dense secondary forests. It is threatened by deforestation within its natural habitat. The turtle has been designated as one of the National Natural Monuments of Japan, and trading and captive maintenance are strictly regulated by law, but no concrete measures for conservation have yet been carried out. There is an urgent necessity to secure and preserve the habitat. Proposed conservation measures include research on life history and population status, about which only limited information is currently available.