Overview

Distribution

Gansu, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, N India, Nepal, Pakistan].
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Distribution: N. India, Afghanistan, Baluchistan and N.W. Himalaya up to 2500 m. alt. s.m.
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Afghanistan, Pakistan, Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), S. Tibet, S.W. China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Densely tomentose shrubs. Leaves sessile or shortly petiolate, lanceolate to ovate, 2.5-8 cm long, tomentose on both surfaces; margin crenate, dentate or sinuate, entire in young leaves; petiole 0.5-1.5 cm long; apex acute; tomentum stellate, white, evanescent on the upper surface. Flowers sessile, purple, fragrant, in interrupted branched spikes. Calyx c. 4 mm long, urceolate, stellate tomentose; lobes 4, ovate. Corolla tube c. 8 mm long, stellate-pubescent; lobes orbicular, c. 3 mm long, pubescent on the outside and throat; margin undulate. Stamens 4; anthers sub-sessile, included, 1.5 mm long. Capsule 2-vavled, ellipsoid, 5-6 mm long, tomentose. Seeds many, 0.5 mm long, membranous round the edge.
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Description

Shrubs 0.2--5 m tall. Branchlets subterete to 4-angled, densely stellate tomentose. Stipules suborbicular to cordate, 0.3--3 cm. Leaves petiolate, sessile, or connate-perfoliate, usually amplexicaul on vigorous shoots; petiole often winged, to 4 cm; leaf blade ovate to triangular or narrowly so, 1--20 X 0.5--8 cm, densely tomentose, often glabrescent especially adaxially, base mostly rounded to cordate, margin crenate, serrate, dentate, or shallowly lobed and then lower lobes often large, apex acuminate, acute, or obtuse, lateral veins 3--11 pairs. Inflorescences terminal, paniculate or spicate cymes, 1--20 X 1--15 cm; bracteoles several to many, almost linear, 0.4--2.5 cm. Calyx campanulate, 3--9 mm, outside densely stellate tomentose and with some glandular hairs, inside often glabrous; lobes ovate to triangular, 0.8--1.7 mm. Corolla lilac, violet, or purple, with an orange throat, 0.7--1.6 cm, outside densely to sparsely stellate tomentose and with glandular hairs or entirely glabrous, inside with a pilose belt, tube 6--12 X 1--2 mm; lobes suborbicular, 1.2--4 X 1.2--4 mm. Stamens inserted slightly above or at middle of corolla tube; anthers sessile. Pistil 3--5 mm. Ovary ovoid, 1.2--2 mm, stellate tomentose. Style 1.5--2.5 mm, base stellate tomentose; stigma clavate. Capsules ellipsoid, 5--6 X 2--3 mm, stellate tomentose. Seeds ovate-oblong, ca. 1 mm, unwinged. Fl. Feb-Aug.
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Elevation Range

1800-4400 m
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Buddleja acosma C. Marquand; B. agathosma Diels; B. agathosma var. glandulifera C. Marquand; B. caryopteridifolia W. W. Smith; B. caryopteridifolia var. eremophila (W. W. Smith) C. Marquand; B. caryopteridifolia var. fasciculiflora Z. Y. Zhang; B. caryopteridifolia var. lanuginosa C. Marquand; B. crispa var. amplexicaulis Z. Y. Zhang; B. crispa var. dicipiens Schmidt; B. crispa var. farreri (I. B. Balfour & W. W. Smith) Handel-Mazzetti; B. crispa var. glandulifera (C. Marquand) S. Y. Pao; B. crispa var. grandiflora (C. Marquand) S. Y. Pao; B. eremophila W. W. Smith; B. farreri I. B. Balfour & W. W. Smith; B. hastata Prain ex C. Marquand; B. incompta W. W. Smith; B. praecox Lingelsheim; B. sterniana A. Cotton; B. tibetica W. W. Smith; B. tibetica var. farreri (I. B. Balfour & W. W. Smith) C. Marquand; B. tibetica var. glandulifera C. Marquand; B. tibetica var. grandiflora C. Marquand; B. tibetica var. truncatifolia (H. Léveillé) C. Marquand; B. truncata Gagnepain; B. truncatifolia H. Léveillé; B. whitei Kraenzlin.
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Ecology

Habitat

Dry river bottoms, slopes with boulders, exposed cliffs, thickets; 1400--4300 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per: April-May.
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Wikipedia

Buddleja crispa

Buddleja crispa, sometimes called the Himalayan Butterfly Bush, is native to Afghanistan, Bhutan, North India, Nepal, Pakistan and China (Gansu, Sichuan, Xizang), where it grows on dry river beds, slopes with boulders, exposed cliffs, and in thickets, at elevations of 1400–4300 m.[1] Named by Bentham in 1835, B. crispa was introduced to cultivation in 1850,[2] and came to be considered one of the more attractive species within the genus; it ranked 8th out of 57 species and cultivars in a public poll organized by the Center for Applied Nursery Research (CANR) at the University of Georgia, USA.[3] [1]. In the UK, B. crispa was accorded the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Merit in 1961.[4] However, the species is not entirely cold-hardy, and thus its popularity is not as ubiquitous as it might otherwise be.

Buddleja crispa, after Leeuwenberg[edit]

In his 1979 revision of the taxonomy of the African and Asiatic species of Buddleja, the Dutch botanist Anthonius Leeuwenberg controversially sank five Chinese species as B. crispa on the basis of the similarity in the individual flowers, dismissing the wide ranges in size of both inflorescence and leaf as attributable to environmental factors.[5] It was Leeuwenberg's taxonomy which was adopted in the Flora of China[1] published in 1996. Until DNA analysis can prove otherwise, it is this classification which is accepted here. The five former species, still widely recognized in horticulture, are: Buddleja agathosma, Buddleja caryopteridifolia, Buddleja farreri, Buddleja sterniana, and Buddleja tibetica.

Description[edit]

B. crispa foliage.

The 'original' B. crispa as known to horticulture, cloned from a plant grown at Aldenham, England (see Cultivation), is a comparatively slow growing deciduous shrub of bushy habit, reaching 3.5 m high, more in spread.[6] Young twigs and both sides of the leaves are covered with a white or tawny loose felt. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, 5–12 cm long by 2.0–4.5 cm wide, with petioles 0,6–2,5 cm. The shrub flowers from February to August.[7] The fragrant flowers form terminal panicles 7–10 cm long by 5 cm wide. The corolla is lilac, with an orange throat.[8] 2n = 38 (diploid).[9]

The former species sunk by Leeuwenberg, as listed in the preceding section, have, with the exception of "B. sterniana", inflorescences of varying density < 12  cm long, complemented by leaves of variable size and shape, often covered in a dense white tomentum when young. The exception, "B. sterniana", has markedly smaller inflorescences and leaves < 6  cm long.

Cultivation[edit]

Buddleja crispa needs a well-drained soil and full sun; Bean states that it is at its best when grown on a wall.[10] Most if not all the specimens in commerce in the UK derive from a plant in the Aldenham collection amassed by Vicary Gibbs.[11] Hardiness: USDA zones 8–9.[2]

Notable specimens[edit]

A particularly tall example of tree-like form > 4.5 m high is grown near an entrance to the grassland and aquatic gardens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew [2]

Cultivars[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Li, P. T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  2. ^ a b c Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. RHS Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  3. ^ Gillman, J., Dirr, M. A. & Braman, K. (1997). Evaluation and selection of superior Buddleja taxa for Georgia nurseries and gardens. Center for Applied Nursery Research, Dearing, Georgia, USA.
  4. ^ Hillier & Sons. (1990). Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. p. 47. David & Charles, Newton Abbot.
  5. ^ Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Nederland.
  6. ^ Bean 1976, vol 1, p. 450. The Flora of China gives a height of up to 5 m.
  7. ^ Flora of China; Bean says June or later; Krüssmann 1984, vol I, p. 242 says July - August; Hillier 1990, p. 47 says late summer; Phillips 1989, p. 209 says: flowers in spring - often before the leaves expand - if not pruned; summer to autumn if pruned in spring."
  8. ^ A. Mehra et al., Occurrence of Chilli veinal mottle virus in Himalayan butterfly bush (Buddleja crispa) accessed 21 November 2007
  9. ^ Chen, G, Sun, W-B, & Sun, H. (2007). Ploidy variation in Buddleja L. (Buddlejaceae) in the Sino - Himalayan region and its biogeographical implications. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 2007, 154, 305 – 312. The Linnean Society of London.
  10. ^ Bean shows a b/w-photo (Plate 23) of a beautiful plant, indeed growing against a wall
  11. ^ Bean, W. J. (1914). Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles. Eighth edition, revised by D. L. Clarke, 1989. Vol. 1, A-C. Murray, London.
  12. ^ images: at Modeste Herwig's Photo Website and at Tuinkrant

Literature[edit]

  • Bean, W. J. (1970). Trees & Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, 8th ed., Vol. 1.. (2nd impression 1976) London
  • Hillier & Sons. (1990). Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. David & Charles, Newton Abbot.
  • Krüssmann, G. (1984). Manual of Cultivated Broad-leaved Trees & Shrubs, Vol. 1. Engl. transl. London, 1984.
  • Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1989). Shrubs, Pan Books, London.
  • Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
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Buddleja caryopteridifolia

Buddleja caryopteridifolia W.W.Sm. is a small deciduous shrub discovered by George Forrest in 1913 on open ground at 3,000 m on the Tong Shan in the Yangtze valley, China. The species was described and named by William Wright Smith in 1914.[1]

Resembling B. crispa, it was sunk under this name by Leeuwenberg,[2] although it remains recognized as a separate species in horticulture. [3] It is likely that some specimens previously grown under this name at the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh were actually Buddleja sterniana. [4]

Description[edit]

B. caryopteridifolia grows to 2 m in height in the wild, and bears small upright terminal panicles with relatively few flowers. The colour of the sweetly scented flowers is generally pink-purple, which appear in spring or late summer. The grey-green lanceolate leaves are less tomentose than B. crispa, usually with irregular toothed margins, although the margins of the commonly cultivated form are entire. Most leaves are opposite but occasionally shoots are produced with some alternate leaves. The foliage resembles that of several species of the Caryopteris genus for which it is named.

Cultivation[edit]

B. caryopteridifolia is fairly hardy in the UK, but loses all its leaves in winter. Relatively common in cultivation in the UK, specimens are grown as part of the NCCPG national collections at The Lavender Garden and The Longstock Nursery. The origin of the cultivated form is unknown. Hardiness: USDA zones 8–9. [3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith W.W. (1914). Notes Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh 8: 179.
  2. ^ Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen, Wageningen, Nederland.
  3. ^ a b Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. RHS Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
  4. ^ Cotton, A. D. (1947). Spring flowering buddleias. RHS Journal Vol. 72. 1947. pp 427 – 437. Royal Horticultural Society, London.
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Buddleja agathosma

Buddleja agathosma was a species identified by Ludwig Diels but later sunk as Buddleja crispa by Leeuwenberg in 1979, [1] and treated as such in the subsequent Flora of China published in 1996;[2] however, the shrub remains widely known by its former epithet in horticulture. B. agathosma is endemic to western Yunnan, China.

Description[edit]

var. agathosma leaves

B. agathosma is a deciduous shrub of sparse habit which, left unpruned, grows to a large size. The heavily-scented flowers appear on the old wood before the leaves at the nodes of the previous year's growth, during April in the UK; the panicles are < 12 cm in length and pale lavender in colour. The deeply-toothed leaves are initially white, owing to a dense coating of hairs, but ultimately appear greyish owing to the dense indumentum; the underside remains white and tomentose [1]

Cultivation[edit]

The shrub is hardy in southern Britain, although shoots are killed in severe winters. The plant is self-fertile, and can produce copious viable seed. Softwood cuttings can be struck in June. A specimen is grown as part of the NCCPG national collection of Buddleja at Longstock Park Nursery, near Stockbridge, Hampshire, England.[3] Hardiness: USDA zones 8–10. [4]


Etymology[edit]

'Agathosma', from the Greek words 'agathos', meaning pleasant, and 'osma', meaning smell.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Nederland.
  2. ^ Li, P & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  3. ^ Moore, P. (2012). Buddleja List 2011-2012 Longstock Park Nursery. Longstock Park, UK.
  4. ^ Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0

Literature[edit]

  • Bean, W. J. (1970). Trees & Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, 8th ed., Vol. 1.. (2nd impression 1976) London
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Buddleja sterniana

Buddleja sterniana was a species sunk as Buddleja crispa by Leeuwenberg in 1979, [1] and treated as such in the subsequent Flora of China.[2] however, the plant remains widely known by its former epithet in horticulture.

The shrub's origin is uncertain but, as it was originally collected by Forrest, may reasonably be assumed to be from Yunnan, China. Seed was distributed in the UK by Reginald Cory in 1922.[3]

Description[edit]

B. sterniana is a deciduous multistemmed shrub often growing to > 3 m high, when it can become straggly unless pruned hard. The faintly-scented flowers are pale lavender, with an orange eye, and arranged in small (< 6  cm long) panicles, which appear before the leaves on the previous year's growth, during April in the UK. The leaves are much smaller than those of the type; the undersides are typically covered with a white tomentum.[3]

Cultivation[edit]

The shrub was originally grown at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, but by the Second World War only survived in the UK in the Chalk Garden of the eponymous Colonel Stern in Worthing, Sussex.[3][4] Softwood cuttings can easily be struck in June. The shrub now features in the NCCPG National Collection held by the Longstock Park Nursery, near Stockbridge, in Hampshire, England. All the specimens in commerce probably derive from Forrest seed collections.[5] Hardiness: USDA zones 8–9. [6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland.
  2. ^ Li, P. T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  3. ^ a b c Cotton, A. D. (1947). The spring-flowering buddleias (sic). R H S Journal, Vol 72 1947 pp 428-430.
  4. ^ Stern, F. C. (1960). A chalk garden. Faber & Faber, London, 1974 (2nd ed.).
  5. ^ Bean, W. J. (1914). Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles. Eighth edition, revised by D. L. Clarke, 1989. Vol. 1, A-C. Murray, London.
  6. ^ Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. Plant Collector Guide. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0

Literature[edit]

  • Bean, W. J. (1970). Trees & Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, 8th ed., Vol. 1.. (2nd impression 1976) London
  • Hillier & Sons. Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. (1990). David & Charles, Newton Abbot.
  • Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen B. V., Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN=978-0-88192-688-0
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Buddleja tibetica

Buddleja tibetica was a species sunk as Buddleja crispa by Leeuwenberg in 1979,[1] and treated as such in the subsequent Flora of China;[2] however, the plant remains widely known by its former epithet in horticulture.

The xerophytic shrub was discovered and collected in 1904 in the Llalung Valley (altitude 3,300  m), Tibet, by Captain Herbert Walton I. M. S., Medical Officer and Naturalist to the Tibet Frontier Commission,[3] whilst travelling from Sikkim to Lhasa. [4] The shrub was introduced to the UK by Lord Wigram, who received it from the Lloyd Botanic Garden in Darjeeling [5] as Buddleja hastata Prain, ex C. Marquand in 1931 [6]

Description[edit]

B. tibetica is a deciduous shrub of very sparse habit, growing to < 3 m high, more in diameter. The flowers appear before the leaves at the nodes of the previous year's growth, during March in the UK. The faintly scented flowers form compact sessile or subsessile clusters, initially dark purple, they rapidly turn pale on opening, ultimately becoming white. The distinctive leaves are < 10 cm long, and broadly lanceolate, though there is considerable variation in both size and shape; the upper surface covered with a tomentum which persists for several months, bestowing a greyish-white bloom.[5]

Cultivation[edit]

Lord Wigram grew his plant in his moat garden at Windsor Castle, and it is from this plant that all the other known specimens in the UK were derived. Still very rare in cultivation, the shrub was propagated in 2007 by Peter Moore of the Longstock Park Nursery, NCCPG National Collection holders, near Stockbridge in Hampshire. The seed is infertile, and cuttings are difficult to strike; hardwood cuttings can occasionally be rooted in 100% perlite, and softwood cuttings can be struck in June under mist.[5] Hardiness: USDA zones 8–9.

Notable plants[edit]

The oldest and largest specimen in cultivation is to be found in one of the outer gardens of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Grown from a cutting from the specimen at Crathes Castle in 1942, its longevity has been attributed to the comparatively dry climate of Edinburgh (average rainfall 676 mm per annum, compared with 1650 mm for Scotland as a whole) [1], and location against a wall.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland.
  2. ^ Li, P. T. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  3. ^ Walton, H. J. Appendix A: 'Notes on the natural history of southern Tibet', in Landon, P. (1905). The Opening of Tibet. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York.
  4. ^ Misc. Inform. Kew 1930: 197 1930
  5. ^ a b c Cotton, A. D. (1947). The spring-flowering buddleias (sic). R H S Journal, Vol 72 1947 pp 428-430.
  6. ^ Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0

Literature[edit]

  • Bean, W. J. (1970). Trees & Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, 8th ed., Vol. 1.. (2nd impression 1976) London
  • Hillier & Sons. (1990). Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. David & Charles, Newton Abbot.
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Buddleja farreri

Buddleja farreri is a xerophytic deciduous shrub endemic to Kansu, China, discovered by Reginald Farrer in 1915. Farrer described the shrub's habitat as "..the very hottest and driest crevices, cliffs, walls and banks down the most arid and torrid aspects of the Ha Shin Fang". [1][2] Farrer sent seed to the UK shortly afterwards, and it is from this consignment that all the British specimens have been derived.[3]

B. farreri was one of five species sunk as Buddleja crispa by Leeuwenberg in 1979, [4] and later treated as such in the Flora of China; [5] however the original epithet is widely retained in horticulture.

Description[edit source | edit]

Buddleja farreri, Longstock Park, UK.

B. farreri is a deciduous shrub of sparse habit which, left unpruned, grows to a large size. The flowers appear on the old wood before the leaves at the nodes of the previous year's growth, during April in the UK. The lax panicles are < 20 cm in length and pale lavender in colour. The leaves are initially white, owing to a dense coating of hairs, but ultimately become almost glabrous, with a dark green upper surface; the underside remains white and tomentose. Their size and shape are variable, depending on the type of shoot bearing them. Strong shoots from the base will bear large stipules, and broad, winged petioles, very different from those on ordinary shoots.[3]

Farrer summarized the plant as a "noble bush with ample flannely foliage",[2] however Bean noted that it is probably the cooler, damper UK climate which prevents the shrub from making the striking display that so impressed Farrer in China. [1]

Cultivation[edit source | edit]

The shrub is hardy in southern Britain, although shoots are killed in severe winters. The plant is self-fertile, and can produce copious viable seed. Softwood cuttings can be struck in June.[3] Hardiness: USDA zones 8–10.[6]

Notable plants[edit source | edit]

A large specimen is grown as part of the NCCPG national collection of Buddleja at Longstock Garden Nursery, near Stockbridge, Hampshire, England.

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b Bean, W. J. (1981). Trees and shrubs hardy in Great Britain, 7th edition. Murray, London
  2. ^ a b Farrer, R. (1917). On the Eaves of the World. London, Edward Arnold.
  3. ^ a b c Cotton, A. D. (1947). The spring-flowering buddleias (sic). R H S Journal, Vol 72 1947 pp 428-430.
  4. ^ Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen, Nederland.
  5. ^ Li, P. & Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1996). Loganiaceae, in Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds) Flora of China, Vol. 15. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, USA. ISBN 978-0915279371 online at www.efloras.org
  6. ^ Stuart, D. D. (2006). Buddlejas. RHS Plant Guide. Timber Press, Oregon. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0

Literature[edit source | edit]

  • Bean, W. J. (1970). Trees & Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, 8th ed., Vol. 1.. (2nd impression 1976). John Murray, London.
  • Hillier's Manual of Trees & Shrubs, 5th ed.. (1990). David & Charles, Newton Abbot.
  • Stuart, D. (2006). Buddlejas. Timber Press, Oregon, USA. ISBN 978-0-88192-688-0
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Notes

Comments

The wood is fairly hard and is used for fuel.
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Medicinal.
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