Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 4-14 cm tall, to 20 cm tall at fruiting, labrous or pubescent. Rhizome erect, brownish, short, 4-13 mm, 2-7 mm in diameter, densely noded, with several yellowish or whitish rootlets. Leaves numerous, basal, rosulate; stipules glaucous or greenish, 1.5-2.5 cm, membranous, 2/3-4/5 adnate to petioles, free part linear-lanceolate, margin remotely glandular fimbriate-denticulate or subentire; petiole usually 1-2 × exceeding blades at anthesis, very narrowly winged in upper part, to 10 cm at fruiting, broadly winged in upper part, puberulous or glabrous; upper blades oblong-lanceolate or triangular-ovate, usually smaller than lower ones; lower ones oblong, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, or oblong-ovate, 1.5-4 cm long, 0.5-1 cm wide, both surfaces glabrous or puberulous, sometimes only puberulous along veins abaxially, base truncate or cuneate, rarely slightly cordate, margin shallowly crenate, apex obtuse; blades accrescent at fruiting, to 10 × 4 cm. Flowers purple-violet or purplish, rarely white, light colored and purple-striate at throat, medium-sized; pedicels usually numerous, equaling or exceeding leaves, slender, glabrous or puberulous, 2-bracteolate near middle; bracteoles linear. Sepals ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3-7 mm long, 0.7-1.8 mm wide, apex acuminate; appendages short, 1-1.5 mm, 1/2 to 1/6 as long as sepal, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, apex rounded or denticulate. Petals obovate or oblong-obovate, lateral ones 1-1.2 cm, inside glabrous or rarely lightly bearded, anterior one 1.3-2 cm (spur included), inside purple-veined; spur tubular, 3-8 mm, 2-5 × as long as calycine appendages; anthers ca. 2 mm, appendage of connectives ca. 1.5 mm; spur of 2 anterior stamens tubular, 3-6 mm, apex slender. Ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles clavate, slightly exceeding ovary, base slightly geniculate; stigmas triangular with slightly thickened and raised margins on lateral sides and abaxially, slightly flat at top, shortly beaked in front. Capsule ellipsoid, 5-12 mm, glabrous. Seeds yellowish, ovoid-globose, ca. 1.8 mm.
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Distribution

Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Philippines, Vietnam].
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Viola philippica is occurring in Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang of China, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Philippines, Vietnam.
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© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 4-14 cm tall, to 20 cm tall at fruiting. Rhizome erect, brownish, short, 4-13 mm, 2-7 mm in diam., densely noded, with several yellowish or whitish rootlets. Leaves numerous, basal, rosulate; stipules glaucous or greenish, 1.5-2.5 cm, membranous, 2/3-4/5 adnate to petioles, free part linear-lanceolate, margin remotely glandular fimbriate-denticulate or subentire; petiole usually 1-2 × exceeding blades at anthesis, very narrowly winged in upper part, to 10 cm at fruiting, broadly winged in upper part, puberulous or glabrous; upper blades oblong-lanceolate or triangular-ovate, usually smaller than lower ones; lower ones oblong, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, or oblong-ovate, 1.5-4 × 0.5-1 cm, both surfaces glabrous or puberulous, sometimes only puberulous along veins abaxially, base truncate or cuneate, rarely slightly cordate, margin shallowly crenate, apex obtuse; blades accrescent at fruiting, to 10 × 4 cm. Flowers purple-violet or purplish, rarely white, light colored and purple-striate at throat, medium-sized; pedicels usually numerous, equaling or exceeding leaves, slender, glabrous or puberulous, 2-bracteolate near middle; bracteoles linear. Sepals ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3-7 × 0.7-1.8 mm, apex acuminate; appendages short, 1-1.5 mm, 1/2 to 1/6 as long as sepal, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, apex rounded or denticulate. Petals obovate or oblong-obovate, lateral ones 1-1.2 cm, inside glabrous or rarely lightly bearded, anterior one 1.3-2 cm (spur included), inside purple-veined; spur tubular, 3-8 mm, 2-5 × as long as calycine appendages; anthers ca. 2 mm, appendage of connectives ca. 1.5 mm; spur of 2 anterior stamens tubular, 3-6 mm, apex slender. Ovary ovoid, glabrous; styles clavate, slightly exceeding ovary, base slightly geniculate; stigmas triangular with slightly thickened and raised margins on lateral sides and abaxially, slightly flat at top, shortly beaked in front. Capsule ellipsoid, 5-12 mm, glabrous. Seeds yellowish, ovoid-globose, ca. 1.8 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Sep. 2n = 24*, 48.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Diagnostic Description

Viola philippica var. philippica is close relative of Viola philippica var. pseudojaponica, but differs from the latter in its withered (vs. present) leaves in winter, oblong-lanceolate to triangular-lanceolate (vs. triangular-lanceolate) blade, slightly winged (vs. rather distinctly winged) petioles.
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Source: Plants of Tibet

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Ecology

Habitat

Fields, grassy places on mountain slopes, forest margins, thickets, roadsides; below 1700 m.
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Growing in fields, grassy places on mountain slopes, forest margins, thickets; below 1700 m.
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© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering from April to May; fruiting from May to September.
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Source: Plants of Tibet

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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Viola was inferred from transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequences. Parsimony and maximum likelihood approaches place Latin American sections basal in viola, supporting an Andean origin for the genus. Group of sect. Chamaemelanium, mostly stemmed and yellow-flowered with x = 6 chromosomes, intermingle with groups of sect. Nomimium that are stemless and white or blue-flowered with x =12 or an aneuploid number. The remaining sect. Nomimium groups with primarily blue flowers and x= 10 and aneuploid or polyploidy numbers form a clade including Hawaiian sect. Nosphinium, with pansies of sect. melanium (typically stemmed with multicolored flowers and x = 5 to 17) at the base (Ballard et al., 1999).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Viola philippica is 2n = 24, 48 (Gao and Zhang, 1984; Huang et al., 1996).
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Source: Plants of Tibet

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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Viola philippica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Viola philippica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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