Dipterocarpus turbinatus (Khmer chhë tië:l dâ:ng; India gurjan, gurjun, gurgina; Chinese 羯布罗香 jie bu luo xiang; Swedish keruing, the last an international name for Dipterocarpus wood) is a species of tree in the family Dipterocarpaceae native to western India and mainland Southeast Asia, and cultivated in surrounding areas. It is an important source of the wood known as keruing, and is often used in the plywood industry.
The tree is indigenous within the area from India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos to Vietnam, while it is cultivated in Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan), Philippines, and China (southeast Xizang, southern & western Yunnan).
The trees of the species are lofty, growing 30-45m tall. The bark is gray or dark brown, and is shallowly longitudinally fissured and flaky. Branchlets are glabrescent. Leaf buds falcate, buds and young twigs densely gray puberulous. Stipules 2–6 cm, densely, shortly dark grayish or dark yellow puberulous; petiole 2–3 cm, densely gray puberulous or glabrescent; leaf blade ovate-oblong, 20-30 × 8–13 cm, leathery, glabrous or sparsely stellate pubescent, lateral veins 15-20 pairs conspicuously raised abaxially, base rounded or somewhat cordate, margin entire or sometimes sinuate, apex acuminate or acute. Racemes axillary, 3-6-flowered. Calyx segments: 2 linear, 3 shorter, all glabrous, outside glaucous. Stamens ca. 30; anthers linear-lanceolate; connective appendages filiform. Ovary densely pubescent; style terete, silvery gray tomentose on lower half. Nut ovoid or narrowly ovoid, densely appressed tomentose; calyx tube to 2.8 cm in diam., glabrous, glaucous; winglike calyx segments linear-lanceolate, 12-15 × ca. 3 cm, glabrous, minutely papillate near much-ramified solitary midvein. Flowering is March to April, fruiting occurs in June and July
Habitat and status
It is found in mixed deciduous, evergreen and semi-evergreen forests In Cambodia one description of the habitats is wet dense forest, sometimes on sandy, clayey soils, sometimes on red soils. The conservation status is based on the rate of habitat loss, the major threat for the species, though some subpopulations are protected in reserves.
The resin of the tree (known internationally as East Indian copaiba balsam) is used in India, where it is the source of kanyin oil and gurjun oil, and in Cambodia, where the almost solid resin is especially used to prepare torches. The red brown wood has use documented for India, Cambodia and Yunnan, China. In Cambodia the wood is popular for sawing, woodwork and teacabinet-work. Medicinal uses for the plant include treating gonorrhea, leprosy, psoriasis and other skin diseases. In the home-gardens of S China, it is cultivated both as a medicinal and as a perfume plant.
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