Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees, lofty, ca. 35 m tall. Bark gray or dark brown, shallowly longitudinally fissured and flaky. Branchlets glabrescent; leaf buds falcate, buds and young twigs densely gray puberulous. Stipules 2-6 cm, densely, shortly dark grayish or dark yellow puberulous; petiole 2-3 cm, densely gray puberulous or glabrescent; leaf blade ovate-oblong, 20-30 × 8-13 cm, leathery, glabrous or sparsely stellate pubescent, lateral veins 15-20 pairs conspicuously raised abaxially, base rounded or somewhat cordate, margin entire or sometimes sinuate, apex acuminate or acute. Racemes axillary, 3-6-flowered. Calyx segments: 2 linear, 3 shorter, all glabrous, outside glaucous. Stamens ca. 30; anthers linear-lanceolate; connective appendages filiform. Ovary densely pubescent; style terete, silvery gray tomentose on lower half. Nut ovoid or narrowly ovoid, densely appressed tomentose; calyx tube to 2.8 cm in diam., glabrous, glaucous; winglike calyx segments linear-lanceolate, 12-15 × ca. 3 cm, glabrous, minutely papillate near much-ramified solitary midvein. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. Jun-Jul.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Dipterocarpus jourdainii Pierre; D. laevis Buchanan- Hamilton; D. turbinatus C. F. Gaertner var. ramipiliferus Y. K. Yang & J. K. Wu.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A large tree found in mixed deciduous, evergreen and semi-evergreen forest.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A large tree found in lowland semi-evergreen and evergreen dipterocarp forest.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat & Distribution

S and W Yunnan (cultivated) [native to Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A1cd+2cd

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Ashton, P.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Not Threatened
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A1cd+2cd

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Ashton, P.

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s

History
  • 1997
    Not Threatened
    (Walter and Gillett 1998)
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Population

Population
The conservation status is based on the rate of habitat loss.
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Threats

Major Threats
Habitat loss.
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Major Threats
Habitat loss. It is one of the important sources of keruing timber in Indo-China and is often used as a commercial grade plywood.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Some subpopulations are protected in reserves.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Some populations are known to occur in forest reserves.
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Wikipedia

Dipterocarpus turbinatus

Dipterocarpus turbinatus (Khmer chhë tië:l dâ:ng;[1] India gurjan,[2] gurjun,[3] gurgina;[4] Chinese 羯布罗香 jie bu luo xiang;[5] Swedish keruing,[6] the last an international name for Dipterocarpus wood) is a species of tree in the family Dipterocarpaceae native to western India and mainland Southeast Asia, and cultivated in surrounding areas. It is an important source of the wood known as keruing, and is often used in the plywood industry.[7]

Distribution[edit]

The tree is indigenous within the area from India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos to Vietnam, while it is cultivated in Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan), Philippines, and China (southeast Xizang, southern & western Yunnan).

Description[edit]

The trees of D. turbinatus are lofty, growing 30-45m tall. The bark is gray or dark brown, and is shallowly longitudinally fissured and flaky. Branchlets are glabrescent. The leaf buds are falcate, with both buds and young twigs densely gray and puberulous. The stipules are 2–6 cm, densely, shortly dark grayish or dark yellow puberulous; the petiole is 2–3 cm, densely gray puberulous or glabrescent; the leaf blade is ovate-oblong, 20-30 × 8–13 cm, leathery, glabrous or sparsely stellate pubescent, lateral veins are in 15-20 pairs conspicuously raised abaxially, base rounded or somewhat cordate, margin entire or sometimes sinuate, apex acuminate or acute. The racemes are axillary, 3-6-flowered. Calyx segments are 2 linear, 3 shorter, all glabrous, outside glaucous. The stamens are about 30; anthers linear-lanceolate; connective appendages filiform. The ovary is densely pubescent; style terete, silvery gray tomentose on lower half. The nut is ovoid or narrowly ovoid, densely appressed tomentose; the calyx tube is up to 2.8 cm in diameter, glabrous and glaucous; the winglike calyx segments are linear-lanceolate, 12-15 × ca. 3 cm, glabrous, minutely papillate near much-ramified solitary midvein. Flowering is from March to April, and fruiting occurs in June and July.[5][7]

Habitat and status[edit]

It is found in mixed deciduous, evergreen and semi-evergreen forests In Cambodia one description[1] of the habitats is wet dense forest, sometimes on sandy, clayey soils, sometimes on red soils. The conservation status is based on the rate of habitat loss, the major threat for the species, though some subpopulations are protected in reserves.

The resin of the tree (known internationally as East Indian copaiba balsam[3]) is used in India, where it is the source of kanyin oil and gurjun oil,[8] and in Cambodia, where the almost solid resin is especially used to prepare torches.[1] The red brown wood has use documented for India,[8] Cambodia[1] and Yunnan, China.[9] In Cambodia the wood is popular for sawing, woodwork and teacabinet-work. Medicinal uses for the plant include treating gonorrhea, leprosy, psoriasis and other skin diseases.[4][10] In the home-gardens of South China, it is cultivated both as a medicinal and as a perfume plant.[9]

Literature[edit]

  • Aubréville, A., et al., ed, 1960–, Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viet-Nam
  • Boutelje, J. B., 1980, Encyclopedia of world timbers, names and technical literature
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1959–, Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae
  • FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 1985, Dipterocarps of South Asia FAO, Bangkok
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007, Flora of China 13: 1–548. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2010, Ecocrop (on-line resource)
  • Kostermans, A.J.G.H., ed, 1987, Proceedings of the Third Round Table Conference on Dipterocarps UNESCO, Jakarta
  • Oldfield, S., C. Lusty, & A. MacKinven, compilers, 1998, The World List of Threatened Trees, World Conservation Press, Cambridge, England
  • Phengklai, C. & S. Khamsai, 1985, 'Some non-timber species of Thailand', Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 1(15): 108-48
  • Steenis, C. G. G. J. van, ed, 1948–, Flora malesiana

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d DY PHON Pauline, 2000, Plants Used In Cambodia, self-published, printed by Imprimerie Olympic, Phnom Penh
  2. ^ Sharma, B. D. et al., ed, (1993). "Flora of India". Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Craker, L. E.; Simon, ed, J. E. (1986–1987). "Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants". 2 vols. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  4. ^ a b B., Thomas (1865). "Treatment of Gonorhœa". British Medical Journal.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  5. ^ a b "Flora of China Editorial Committee_Flora of China" 13. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis. 2007. pp. 1–548. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  available at Efloras.org
  6. ^ B., Aldén; S., Ryman; M., Hjertson (2009). "Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning, Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin)". Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  7. ^ a b "The Encycopedia of Life (EOL)". Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products: Raw materials, Delhi" 3. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India. 1952. pp. 94–95. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Long Chun, Lin (1990). "Diversification of homegardens as a sustainable agroecosystem in Xishuangbanna, China Suan V Symposium on rural-urban ecosystem interactions in development(Bandung)May 21–24, 1990". Inst. Ecol. Padjadjaran Univ. Bandung. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  10. ^ "Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases". Retrieved 24 August 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

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Dipterocarpus gracilis

Dipterocarpus gracilis is a critically endangered species of tree in the family Dipterocarpaceae, native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.[1]

The species is found in Kalimantan, Bangladesh, India (the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Tripura), Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra), Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and the Philippines.

This large tree is found in lowland seasonal semi-evergreen and evergreen dipterocarp forests.

Uses[edit]

It is often used as a commercial grade plywood, it is one of the most important sources of keruing timber.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ashton, P. (1998). "Dipterocarpus gracilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 


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Notes

Comments

This tree provides a source of balsam.
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