Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Grasslands"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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General Description

Shrubs, 0.5-1.3 m tall, bushy or usually with branches lax, spreading. Stems 2-4-lined and ancipitous when young, soon terete; internodes 1-5 cm, shorter than leaves. Leaves with petiole 1.5-2 mm; blade oblong to elliptic, 2.5-5 cm long, 1.2-2.3 cm wide, thickly papery, abaxially paler but not glaucous; laminar glands very small dots; abaxial glands absent; main lateral veins 2-3-paired, all or upper sometimes uniting with midvein branches to form ± arched intramarginal vein, tertiary reticulation very dense, not very conspicuous; base cuneate to subangustate, apex acute to rounded. Inflorescence 3-20-flowered, from apical node, lax, shallowly round-topped, sometimes also from uppermost 1-3 nodes, rarely with 1 or 2 pairs of flowering branches; bracts caducous, linear-lanceolate, small. Pedicels 0.8-2.8 cm. Flowers 3-6.5 cm in diameter, stellate; buds ovoid, apex subacute to obtuse. Sepals broadly to narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate, equal to unequal, 4.5-13 mm long, 1.5-6 mm wide; laminar glands basally lines to streaks, dots toward apex, margin entire, apex acute to rounded. Petals golden yellow to lemon yellow, triangular-obovate, 2-3.4 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, 2.5-4.5 times as long as sepals; margin entire, eglandular; apiculus lateral, acute to rounded or obsolete. Stamen fascicles each with 25-35 stamens, longest 1.8-3.2 cm, ca. as long as petals. Ovary ovoid or ovoid-conic to subglobose, 2.5-5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide; styles 1.2-2 cm, 3.5-5 times as long as ovary, united nearly to apices then outcurved or very rarely to half free. Capsule broadly ovoid or rarely ovoid-conic to subglobose, 6-10 mm long, 4-7 mm wide. Seeds dark reddish brown, ca. 2 mm, narrowly carinate; testa linear-reticulate.
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Distribution

"Kerala: Idukki, Kannur, Kollam, Palakkad, Pathanamthitta Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni"
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"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia to Australia and New Zealand and East Asia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Palakkad, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Kannur, Kollam, Wayanad

"
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Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, Cambodia, N and S India, Indonesia (Sumatra to Irian Jaya), Japan, S Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; SE Australia, Pacific islands (New Zealand)].
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Hypericum monogynum is occurring in Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnanm Zhejiang of Chian, Japan, widely cultivated in S Africa, E and S Asia, Australia, Central America, N and W Europe, Mauritius, and the West Indies.
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Distribution: S.E. China, Taiwan. Cultivated in many parts of the world, including the plains of W. Pakistan.
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S. India, Ceylon, Punjab to Japan, S. Korea and S.E. China, south to New Guinea, S. & S.E. Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs, 0.5-1.3 m tall, bushy or usually with branches lax, spreading. Stems 2(-4)-lined and ancipitous when young, soon terete; internodes 1-5 cm, shorter than leaves. Leaves with petiole 1.5-2 mm; blade oblong to elliptic, 2.5-5 × 1.2-2.3 cm, thickly papery, abaxially paler but not glaucous; laminar glands very small dots; abaxial glands absent; main lateral veins 2- or 3-paired, all or upper sometimes uniting with midvein branches to form ± arched intramarginal vein, tertiary reticulation very dense, not very conspicuous; base cuneate to subangustate, apex acute to rounded. Inflorescence 1-15(-30)-flowered, from apical node, lax, shallowly round-topped, sometimes also from uppermost 1-3 nodes, rarely with 1 or 2 pairs of flowering branches; bracts caducous, linear-lanceolate, small. Pedicels 0.8-2.8(-5) cm. Flowers 3-6.5 cm in diam., stellate; buds ovoid, apex subacute to obtuse. Sepals ± spreading, broadly to narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate, equal to unequal, 4.5-13 × 1.5-6 mm; laminar glands basally lines to streaks, dots toward apex, margin entire, apex acute to rounded. Petals golden yellow to lemon yellow, triangular-obovate, 2-3.4 × 1-2 cm, 2.5-4.5 × as long as sepals; margin entire, eglandular; apiculus lateral, acute to rounded or obsolete. Stamen fascicles each with 25-35 stamens, longest 1.8-3.2 cm, ca. as long as petals. Ovary ovoid or ovoid-conic to subglobose, 2.5-5 × 2.5-3 mm; styles 1.2-2 cm, 3.5-5 × as long as ovary, united nearly to apices then outcurved or very rarely to half free. Capsule broadly ovoid or rarely ovoid-conic to subglobose, 6-10 × 4-7 mm. Seeds dark reddish brown, ca. 2 mm, narrowly carinate; testa linear-reticulate. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 42*.
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Description

Shrub 0.5-1.3 m tall, bushy. Stems spreading; branches 2(4)-lined at first, eventually terete. Leaves sessile or with petiole up to 1.5 mm long; lamina 20-45 mm long, 10-17 mm broad, elliptic to oblong or oblanceolate, apex obtuse or apiculate to rounded, base cuneate to subcordate, venation densely reticulate. Inflorescence of 1-c.15-flowered corymbose cymes; flowers 3-5 cm diameter. Sepals 4.5-10 mm long, narrowly elliptic or narrowly oblong to lanceolate, acute to rounded, entire, spreading or ascending in bud and fruit. Petals narrowly obovate, 20-30 mm long, slightly exceeding stamens. Stamens 25-35 in each fascicle. Ovary 2.5-4 mm long; styles c. 3.5-5 x longer than the ovary, united almost to the apex. Capsule 6-10 mm long, broadly ovoid or ovoid-conic to subglobose, without vittae or vesicles. Seeds 1-1.2 mm long, apiculate, narrowly carinate; testa shallowly linear-reticulate to linear-foveolate.
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Description

Herbs, annual, 2-45 cm, tall or long, erect to decumbent or prostrate and rooting at base or along stem; stems solitary or ± cespitose, unbranched below inflorescence or variously branched. Stem 4-lined, with scattered gland dots. Leaves sessile; blade usually ovate or ovate-triangular to oblong or elliptic, 0.2-1.8 cm × 1-10 mm; thickly papery, abaxially paler and sometimes glaucous; laminar and intramarginal glands dense; main lateral veins 1-7, basal, tertiary reticulation not visible; base cordate-amplexicaul to cuneate, not decurrent, margin plane, apex obtuse to rounded. Inflorescence 1- to ca. 30-flowered, terminal, sometimes with flowering branches from up to 3 nodes below; bracts and bracteoles lanceolate-subulate to leaflike. Flowers 4-8 mm in diam., stellate; buds cylindric-ellipsoid, apex ± obtuse. Sepals free, erect, narrowly oblong or rarely lanceolate to elliptic, subequal to unequal, 2-5.5 × 0.5-2 mm; laminar glands lines, distally dots; marginal glands absent; apex acute or obtuse to rounded; veins 3-5. Petals pale to bright yellow or orange, obovate to oblong or elliptic, 1.7-5 × 0.8-1.8 mm, 0.4-0.8 × as long as sepals; laminar glands absent; margin entire, eglandular. Stamens 5-30, irregular or in 5 obscure groups when few, longest 1.5-2.8 mm, 0.4-0.8 × as long as petals. Ovary ± broadly ovoid to subglobose; styles (2 or)3, 0.4-0.8(-1) mm, 0.4-0.6 × as long as ovary, spreading. Capsule cylindric to globose, (2-)2.5-6 × 1.3-2.8 mm, usually slightly shorter than to slightly exceeding sepals. Seeds straw-yellow, ca. 0.5 mm; testa finely linear-scalariform. Fl. Mar-Oct, fr. Apr-Nov. 2n = 16.
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Elevation Range

150-2600 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Erect herbs. Leaves 8-10 x 4 mm, lanceolate, apex acute, base auricled, 3-ribbed, glabrous. Flowers solitary axillary or in terminal cymes; pedicels 5 mm long; sepals 3 x 1 mm, oblong, obtuse, many-ribbed; petals yellow, 4 x 1.5 mm, oblong; stamens many, free; ovary 1-celled, ellipsoid, styles 3, 1 mm long. Capsule 3 x 2 mm, smooth; seeds many, 0.5 x 0.3 mm, oblong 7-ribbed."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Erect or Procumbent Herb
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Synonym

Hypericum chinense Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 1184. 1759, not Osbeck (1757), nor Retzius (1788); H. chinense subsp. latifolium Kuntze; H. chinense subsp. obtusifolium Kuntze; H. chinense subsp. salicifolium (Siebold & Zuccarini) Kuntze; H. chinense var. salicifolium (Siebold & Zuccarini) Choisy; H. monogynum var. salicifolium (Siebold & Zuccarini) André; H. salicifolium Siebold & Zuccarini; Komana salicifolia (Siebold & Zuccarini) Y. Kimura ex Honda; Norysca chinensis (Linnaeus) Spach; N. chinensis var. salicifolia (Siebold & Zuccarini) Y. Kimura; N. salicifolia (Siebold & Zuccarini) K. Koch.
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Synonym

Brathys japonica (Thunberg) Wight; B. laxa Blume; Hypericum cavaleriei H. Léveillé; H. chinense Osbeck (1757), nom. utique rej., not Linnaeus (1759), nor Retzius (1788); H. japonicum var. calyculatum R. Keller; H. japonicum var. cavaleriei (H. Léveillé) Koidzumi; H. japonicum var. maximowiczii R. Keller; H. japonicum var. thunbergii (Franchet & Savatier) R. Keller; H. laxum (Blume) Koidzumi; H. nervatum Hance; H. thunbergii Franchet & Savatier; Sarothra japonica (Thunberg) Y. Kimura; S. laxa (Blume) Y. Kimura.
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Hypericum monogynum is close relative of Hypericum prattii, but differs from the latter in its leaves with base cuneate to rounded, or if cordate then apex rounded (vs, base cordate-amplexicaul, apex acute to acuminate), leaf blade usually broadest at or above middle (vs. elliptic-ovate to broadly ovate).
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Water logged areas in grasslands and semi-evergreen forests
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Rice fields, ditches, marshes, grasslands, waste places; sea level to ca. 3000 m.
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Growing in mountain slopes, roadsides, thickets in dry habitats; 200-1500 m.
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Habitat & Distribution

● Mountain slopes, roadsides, thickets in dry habitats; sea level to 200 m in lowland provinces, but up to 1500 m in Sichuan. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Japan (naturalized); widely cultivated in S Africa, E and S Asia, Australia, Central America, N and W Europe, Mauritius, and the West Indies].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: April-August
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Flowering from May to August; fruiting from August to September.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: Early spring months.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hypericum japonicum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hypericum monogynum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Notes

Comments

Hypericum monogynum is very variable, but there are no gaps in the variation that would allow infraspecific classification. Four main forms can be recognized:

(i) Leaves elliptic to oblanceolate, base cuneate, apex acute; inflorescence very lax; sepals narrowly elliptic, apex acute ("salicifolium"). W Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan.

(ii) Leaves narrowly oblong to lanceolate, base usually rounded, apex obtuse to rounded; inflorescence less lax; sepals narrowly oblong, obtuse ("obtusifolium"). E Hubei and Jiangxi southward and eastward to the coast; Taiwan, where the leaves are oblanceolate.

(iii) Leaves broadly oblong to broadly elliptic or lanceolate, base cuneate to cordate, apex acute to rounded; sepals broadly elliptic to broadly oblong or leaflike ("latisepalum"). W Hubei, Sichuan; also Guizhou and Shandong (probably introduced).

(iv) Leaves broadly elliptic-oblong to triangular-ovate or ovate, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex obtuse to rounded; sepals narrowly elliptic, apex acute ("ovatum"). Sichuan.

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Comments

Hypericum japonicum is very variable and, the variation being continuous, eight nodal variants have been recognized but not formally named. Five of these occur in China:

(i) Stems erect to decumbent; inflorescence from terminal node only; bracts linear to lanceolate; sepals narrow ("japonicum" in part). Lowland.

(ii) Stems erect to decumbent; inflorescence from more than one node, sometimes with other branches; bracts linear to lanceolate; sepals narrow ("japonicum" in part). Lowland.

(iii) Stems erect; inflorescence from terminal node; bracts leaflike; sepals narrowly oblong to narrowly elliptic ("maximowiczii"). ?Lowland.

(iv) Stems decumbent to procumbent; inflorescence from terminal node; bracts leaflike; sepals narrowly oblong to narrowly elliptic ("laxum"). Lowland to upland.

(v) Stems decumbent to prostrate; inflorescence from terminal node; bracts leaflike; sepals (at least outer) broadly elliptic to obovate ("calyculatum"). Upland to montane.

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