Overview

Distribution

S Anhui, W Hubei, Hunan, N Jiangxi, E Sichuan, NW Zhejiang [Japan].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 20 m tall, androdioecious, sometimes andromonoecious. Bark gray. Branchlets slender; winter buds conical, scales 5 pairs, pubescent. Leaves deciduous; petiole 3-5 cm, densely pubescent; leaf blade subleathery, abaxially pale green and pilose, densely so on veins, midvein sparsely pubescent adaxially, lateral veins 12-14 pairs usually impressed adaxially, with 3 leaflets per petiole; leaflet blades oblong-elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, 7-14 × 3-6 cm, margin entire or remotely and shallowly serrate with obtuse teeth, apex acute or rarely acuminate. Inflorescence cymose, 3-5-flowered. Pedicel densely pilose. Pistillate flowers: sepals 5, obovate; petals 5, oblong-obovate; stamens 8, glabrous; disk glabrous, extrastaminal; ovary densely pubescent; style glabrous; stigmas widely spreading. Fruit yellowish brown; nutlets flat; wing including nutlet 3.5-4(-6) × ca. 1.2 cm, curved inward and wings spreading at 90°. Fl. Apr, fr. Sep.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Acer maximowiczianum Miquel, nom. illeg. superfl.; A. maximowiczianum subsp. megalocarpum (Rehder) A. E. Murray; A. nikoense var. megalocarpum Rehder; Negundo nikoense Miquel.
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Type Information

Isolectotype for Acer maximowiczianum Miq.
Catalog Number: US 18031
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. J. Maximowicz
Year Collected: 1863
Locality: Higo, Nagayama., Kyushu, Kumamoto, Japan, Asia-Temperate
  • Isolectotype: Miquel, F. A. W. 1867. Arch. Neerl. Sci. Exact. Nat. 2: 478.
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Isosyntype for Acer nikoense var. megalocarpum Rehder in Sarg.
Catalog Number: US 598275
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. H. Wilson
Locality: Hupeh, China, Asia-Temperate
  • Isosyntype: Sargent, C. S. 1913. Pl. Wilson. 1: 98.
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Ecology

Habitat

Mixed forests; 1000-1800 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Acer maximowiczianum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Acer maximowiczianum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Acer maximowiczianum

Acer maximowiczianum (Nikko maple; syn. A. nikoense Maxim.), is a species of maple widely distributed in China (Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang) and Japan (Honshū, Kyūshū, Shikoku).[2][3]

It is a slender deciduous tree that reaches a height of 15-20m (30–45 ft) but is usually smaller.[4] It is a trifoliate maple, related to such other species as Threeflower Maple (Acer triflorum) and Paperbark Maple (Acer griseum) but has dark gray to blackish bark dissimilar to the exfoliating bark of either.[4]

The leaves have a 3 centimeters (1.2 in)–5 centimeters (2.0 in) petiole and three leaflets; the leaflets are oblong, 5 centimeters (2.0 in)–15 centimeters (5.9 in) long and 3 centimeters (1.2 in)–6 centimeters (2.4 in) broad, with dense, soft pubescence and smooth margins. The hard, horizontally-spreading samaras are 3.5 centimeters (1.4 in)–6 centimeters (2.4 in) long and 1.2 centimeters (0.47 in) broad, and have the same parthenocarpic tendencies as those of A. griseum.[2][4]

The Chinese populations are sometimes treated as a separate subspecies A. maximowiczianum subsp. megalocarpum (Rehder) A.E.Murray, but this is not recognised as distinct by the Flora of China.[2]

Many older texts refer to the species under its synonym A. nikoense Maxim., but as Maximowicz had also cited the name Negundo nikoense Miq. in synonymy, his new name had to be regarded as the same as that under the ICBN. Miquel pointed out that his Negundo nikoense was actually a different plant to the maple Maximowicz had intended to describe, and therefore gave the Nikko Maple a new name, honouring Maximowicz in the process.[5]

Acerogenin M, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, can be found in A. nikoense.[6]

Cultivation[edit]

Nikko Maple was first introduced to cultivation in 1881, when seeds were imported by the Veitch Nurseries in England,[7] after they were discovered by Charles Maries in the forests of Hokkaidō.[8] It is rarely seen in cultivation outside of arboreta. The largest specimens in England are up to 17 meters (56 ft) tall and 70 centimeters (28 in) trunk diameter.[9] In the United States, a mature specimen may be seen at Arnold Arboretum in Boston, Massachusetts.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since]. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.
  2. ^ a b c Xu, T.-z., Chen, Y., de Jong, P. C., & Oterdoom, H. J. Flora of China: Aceraceae (draft)
  3. ^ (Japanese)Shu Suehiro: Acer maximowiczianum
  4. ^ a b c van Gelderen, C.J. & van Gelderen, D.M. (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia.
  5. ^ Clarke, D. L. (1988), in Bean, W. J. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, 8th ed., Supplement.
  6. ^ Acerogenin M, a cyclic diarylheptanoid, and other phenolic compounds from Acer nikoense and their anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor-promoting effects. Akihisa T, Taguchi Y, Yasukawa K, Tokuda H, Akazawa H, Suzuki T and Kimura Y, Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), May 2006, volume 54, issue 5, pages 735-739, PubMed
  7. ^ Bean, W. J. (1970). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, 8th ed.
  8. ^ Peter Barnes. "Japan’s botanical sunrise – plant exploration around the Meiji Restoration". www.barnes-botany.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008. 
  9. ^ Tree Register of the British Isles
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Notes

Comments

Delendick (Brittonia 32: 286-290. 1980) reviewed the nomenclatural history and determined that Acer nikoense Maximowicz (13 Nov 1867) is the correct name for this taxon, not based on Negundo nikoense Miquel, and that the nomenclaturally superfluous synonym A. maximowiczianum Miquel (Dec 1867) is based on A. nikoense.
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