Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Shrubs decumbent, 1.5-2.5 m tall, with horizontally spreading branches; branchlets tetragonous or narrowly 4-winged; young branches purplish red, puberulent or glabrescent; old branches purplish brown, with clearly prominent lenticels; bud scales purplish red, ovate or ovate-triangular, 1-2 mm, membranous, glabrous. Leaves opposite; petiole purple, 2-3 mm, puberulent, inflated into pad at base; leaf blade elliptic or broadly elliptic, 2.5-8 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, papery to thinly leathery, both surfaces glabrous or puberulent on midrib and lateral veins, 3-veined to apex, veins raised abaxially, slightly impressed adaxially, base rounded, margin entire, apex acute. Inflorescences axillary. Male inflorescence 1.5-2.5 cm, densely multiflorous, flowers opening before leaves, rachis glandular puberulent; bracts and bracteoles ovate-orbicular, ca. 2.5 × 2 mm, membranous, translucent, concave, margins fringed denticulate upward; pedicel ca. 1 mm, glabrous; sepals ovate, 1.5-2 nm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, margins translucent, fringed denticulate; petals ovate, very small, ca. 0.3 mm; filaments linear, ca. 1 mm, elongating in anthesis, 3-3.5 mm, anthers oblong, ca. 2 mm; sterile pistils small. Female inflorescence with flowers opening at same time that leaves appear, 4-6 cm, rachis glandular puberulent; bracts purplish, ca. 4 mm; pedicel 1.5-2.5 mm; sepals same as in male flower; petals small, fleshy; stamens short, filaments ca. 0.5 mm; carpels 5, compressed, auriculate, ca. 0.7 × 0.5 mm, styles ca. 1 mm, stigma purplish red. Fruit red to dark purple or purplish black when mature, subglobose, 4-6 mm in diam. Seeds ovoid-oblong.
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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Coriaria nepalensis Wall.:
Burma (Asia)
Bhutan (Asia)
China (Asia)
India (Asia)
Nepal (Asia)
Pakistan (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan].
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Coriaria nepalensis is occurring in Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan of China, Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan.
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Distribution: Endemic to the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent; in the Himalayas from Indus eastward to Bhutan, usually between 800-2500 m.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Coriaria nepalensis is here defined to leaf blade elliptic or broadly elliptic, apex acute, male flower with sterile pistils.
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Description

Shrubs decumbent, 1.5-2.5 m tall, with horizontally spreading branches; branchlets tetragonous or narrowly 4-winged; young branches purplish red, puberulent or glabrescent; old branches purplish brown, with clearly prominent lenticels; bud scales purplish red, ovate or ovate-triangular, 1-2 mm, membranous, glabrous. Leaves opposite; petiole purple, 2-3 mm, puberulent, inflated into pad at base; leaf blade elliptic or broadly elliptic, 2.5-8 × 1.5-4 cm, papery to thinly leathery, both surfaces glabrous or puberulent on midrib and lateral veins, 3-veined to apex, veins raised abaxially, slightly impressed adaxially, base rounded, margin entire, apex acute. Inflorescences axillary. Male inflorescence 1.5-2.5 cm, densely multiflorous, flowers opening before leaves, rachis glandular puberulent; bracts and bracteoles ovate-orbicular, ca. 2.5 × 2 mm, membranous, translucent, concave, margins fringed denticulate upward; pedicel ca. 1 mm, glabrous; sepals ovate, 1.5-2 × 1-1.5 mm, margins translucent, fringed denticulate; petals ovate, very small, ca. 0.3 mm; filaments linear, ca. 1 mm, elongating in anthesis, 3-3.5 mm, anthers oblong, ca. 2 mm; sterile pistils small. Female inflorescence with flowers opening at same time that leaves appear, 4-6 cm, rachis glandular puberulent; bracts purplish, ca. 4 mm; pedicel 1.5-2.5 mm; sepals same as in male flower; petals small, fleshy; stamens short, filaments ca. 0.5 mm; carpels 5, compressed, auriculate, ca. 0.7 × 0.5 mm, styles ca. 1 mm, stigma purplish red. Fruit red to dark purple or purplish black when mature, subglobose, 4-6 mm in diam. Seeds ovoid-oblong. Fl. Feb-May, fr. May-Aug. 2n = 40.
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Description

Spreading to erect, 3-4 m tall shrub with rough brown bark. Branches numerous, opposite, divaricate, puberulous to glabrescent. Leaves o posite, super-posed, almost sessile, blade ovate to broad ovate or elliptic, 12-40 mm long, 8-24 mm broad, apex obtuse, apiculate or mucronate, margin almost entire or minutely denticulate, glabrous, 3-5 costate, with convergent reticulate venation, costae pubescent below. Inflorescence many-flowered, axillary or terminal, 2-5 cm long, raceme surrounded at the base with bud scales. Flowers bisexual, greenish-yellow, 5-merous, 3-4 mm across; pedicel filiform, 5-8 mm long, up to 12 mm in fruit, hirsute; bracts sessile, oblong or oblong-pandurate, 3.5-4.5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad, concave, embracing the pedicel, obtuse, glabrous, margin fimbriate-ciliate. Sepals ovate to broad ovate or somewhat orbicular in fruit, 2.5-3 mm long, 1.5-2(-3) mm broad, yellowish-green, obtuse, apiculate, glabrous, margin membranous crenate. Petals oblong, 1.5-2 mm long, up to 5-7 mm long in fruit, with the keel inserted in the interestices between achenes, apex mucronate, margin undulate. Stamens 10, outer 5 antisepalous free, inner 5 adnate to petals, exesrted, filaments purplish, 3-4 mm long, anthers basifixed, ovate-oblong, 1.5-2 mm long. Carpels 5, inserted on fleshy conical thalamus; each ovary falcate, compressed, c. 1.5 mm long, glabrous; styles 5, 4-5 mm long, exserted, puberulous throughout, purple, stigma linear, acute, somewhat uncinate. Achenes 5, each somewhat ovate, ridged c. 3.5 mm long; separated by inwardly projecting keel of petals, blue, or deep purple. Seed ovate, testa membranous, cotyledons ovate.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Coriaria kweichowensis Hu; C. sinica Maximowicz; Morus calva H. Léveillé.
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Coriaria nepalensis is close relative of Coriaria terminalis, but differs from the latter in its axillary (vs. terminal) inflorescences, shrubs (vs. subshrubby herbs).
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Ecology

Habitat

Thickets, mountain slopes; 200-3200 m.
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Growing in thickets, mountain slopes; 200-3200 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering from February to May; fruiting from May to August.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. March-April.
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Evolution and Systematics

Evolution

The phylogenetic relationships of 12 Coriaria species collected from the representative disjunct areas were inferred by comparing 2416 bp of the combined data set of rbcL and matK genes. The phylogenetic tree shows that the Chile-Papua New Guinea-New Zealand-Pacific islands species and the Central America-northern South America species form a sister group, and the Eurasian clade is more basal to them (Yokoyama et al., 2000).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Coriaria nepalensis is 2n = 40 (Oginuma et al., 1991; Oginuma, 1993).
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Coriaria nepalensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coriaria nepalensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Coriaria nepalensis

Coriaria nepalensis is a shrub of the genus Coriaria. It grows in the foot hills of Himalayas. It blooms in spring and has bright yellow flowers and red fruits in summer.[2]

The plant is also known in English as masuri berry, tanner's tree, or mansur shrub. In Hindi it is known as masuri (मसूरी), makola, or masurya (मसूरिया); and in Nepali as macchaino (मछाईनो).[3]

Description[edit]

C. nepalensis is a shrub, growing around 1.5-2.5 metres tall. Flowers, yellow in colour, are in groups (inflorescences) and they are male or female but in the same plant. It blooms from February to May.[1]

Fruits are red to dark purple when mature. They resemble berries, but they are actually achenes protected by enlarged and colored petals. The fruits are produced from May to August, but they are inedible as their seeds are poisonous.[1]

The number of chromosomes the plant has is 40.[4]

Distribution[edit]

C. nepalensis grows on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (in Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan), usually between 800 and 2500 metres.[5]

This species was also found in southern China in mountain slopes at 200–3200 m high. It has been found in the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Tien-lu Ming and Anthony R. Brach. "Coriaceae" (PDF). Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  2. ^ Tropicos.org. "Coriaria nepalensis Wall.". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  3. ^ "Coriaria nepalensis". Flowers of India. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  4. ^ Yokoyama, J., Suzuki M., Iwatsuki K., & Hasebe M. (2000). "Molecular phylogeny of Coriaria, with special emphasis on the disjunct distribution.". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 14 (1): 11–19. 
  5. ^ Abdul Ghafoor. "Coriaria nepalensis". Flora of Pakistan. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  6. ^ Tien-lu Ming and Anthony R. Brach. "Coriaria nepalensis". Flora of China. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
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Notes

Comments

The fruit is said to be eaten but is known to cause serious digestive upsets, thirst and death in some cases. The branches are browsed by sheep.
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