Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Summary

Understorey trees in evergreen forests at medium elevation between 1200 and 1600 m.
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General Description

Shrubs or small trees, 1-5 m tall. Branchlets sometimes weakly ridged, densely pubescent; terminal buds densely yellow-brown felted-hairy. Petiole ca. 1 cm, pubescent; leaf blade green, elliptic or oblong-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, 6.5-14 cm long, 2-2.5 cm wide, papery, both surfaces sparsely pubescent especially on veins, glabrescent, midvein raised abaxially, depressed adaxially, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs, anastomosing near margin, veinlets reticulate, evident, base cuneate or obtuse, margin entire, ciliate, apex acuminate. Racemes opposite to leaves, drooping, densely pubescent, 7-10 cm, to 25 (-30) cm at fruiting. Pedicel ca. 3 mm, pubescent; bract 1, basal, triangular-acuminate. Flowers 1.3-2 cm. Sepals 5, unequal, ciliate, caducous after anthesis; outer sepals 3, small, upper one deeply cucullate, 8-9 mm, lateral sepals ovate, ca. 5 mm long, 3 mm wide, apex rounded; inner sepals 2, red-purple, petaloid, oblong-obovate, 1.5-1.8 cm, nearly at right angle between them and petals. Petals 3, connate in lower 2/3, yellow, slightly fleshy; keel longer than lateral petals, apex with multifid appendages. Stamens 8; filaments ca. 1.4 cm, lower 2/3 united, forming an open staminal sheath, adnate with petals; anthers ovoid. Disk fleshy. Ovary compressed globose, ca. 3 mm in diameter, narrowly winged, ciliate; style 8-12 mm, curved toward apex, apex 2-lobed; stigma on lower lobes. Capsule purple-red at maturity, baccate, broadly reniform or slightly cordate, ca. 1 cm, ca. 1.3 cm in diameter, margin winged, ciliate, apex emarginate, mucronate; carpels with concentric circles costate. Seeds brown-red to black, globose, ca. 4 mm in diameter, very sparsely pubescent, truncate at hiliferous end, shiny, with large helmet-shaped, somewhat irregular, projecting strophiole.
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Distribution

"Maharashtra: Raigad Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Mysore, Shimoga Kerala: Idukki, Kollam Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Salem, Theni, Tirunelveli"
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"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia and China

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki, Wayanad

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Indomalayasia and south China- in the Western Ghats- South Sahyadri.
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Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, Cambodia, India (Darjeeling, Sikkim), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Polygala arillata is occurring in Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang of China, Bhutan, Cambodia, India (Darjeeling, Sikkim), Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.
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Himalaya (Nepal to Bhutan), S. Tibet, India, Ceylon, Burma, Indo-China, China, Malaya.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs or small trees, 1-5 m tall. Branchlets sometimes weakly ridged, densely pubescent; terminal buds densely yellow-brown felted-hairy. Petiole ca. 1 cm, pubescent; leaf blade green, elliptic or oblong-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, 6.5-14 × 2-2.5 cm, papery, both surfaces sparsely pubescent especially on veins, glabrescent, midvein raised abaxially, depressed adaxially, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs, anastomosing near margin, veinlets reticulate, evident, base cuneate or obtuse, margin entire, ciliate, apex acuminate. Racemes opposite to leaves, drooping, densely pubescent, 7-10 cm, to 25(-30) cm at fruiting. Pedicel ca. 3 mm, pubescent; bract 1, basal, triangular-acuminate. Flowers 1.3-2 cm. Sepals 5, unequal, ciliate, caducous after anthesis; outer sepals 3, small, upper one deeply cucullate, 8-9 mm, lateral sepals ovate, ca. 5 × 3 mm, apex rounded; inner sepals 2, red-purple, petaloid, oblong-obovate, 1.5-1.8 cm, nearly at right angle between them and petals. Petals 3, connate in lower 2/3, yellow, slightly fleshy; keel longer than lateral petals, apex with multifid appendages. Stamens 8; filaments ca. 1.4 cm, lower 2/3 united, forming an open staminal sheath, adnate with petals; anthers ovoid. Disk fleshy. Ovary compressed globose, ca. 3 mm in diam., narrowly winged, ciliate; style 8-12 mm, curved toward apex, apex 2-lobed; stigma on lower lobes. Capsule purple-red at maturity, baccate, broadly reniform or slightly cordate, ca. 1 cm, ca. 1.3 cm in diam., margin winged, ciliate, apex emarginate, mucronate; carpels with concentric circles costate. Seeds brown-red to black, globose, ca. 4 mm in diam., very sparsely pubescent, truncate at hiliferous end, shiny, with large helmet-shaped, somewhat irregular, projecting strophiole. Fl. May-Oct, fr. Jun-Nov.
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Elevation Range

1500-2700 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Shrubs to 1.5 m high. Leaves to 17 x 5 cm, elliptic, acuminate at apex, acute at base; nerves to 15 pairs; petiole 1 cm long. Racemes to 10 cm long. Flowers yellow; pedicels 5 mm long; outer sepals 5 x 4 mm, ovate, obtuse; inner sepals 14 x 8 mm, oblong, emarginate; petals 14 mm long, crest dichotomous; wings decurrent at base. Capsule 8 x 14 mm long, compressed, glabrous, striate; seeds oblong 7 x 4 mm, biconvex; caruncle reddish."
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Diagnostic

"
Habit

Large shrubs to small trees up to 4 m tall.

Trunk & Bark

Bark greysih-brown, lenticellate; blaze whitish-cream.

Branches and branchlets

Branchlets terete, pubescent when young.

Leaves

Leaves simple, alternate, spiral; petiole 0.7-1.3 cm long, canaliculate in cross section, tomentose; lamina 6.5-11 x 3-4.3 cm, elliptic, apex acuminate, base acute, margin entire, glabrous; nervation impressed above; midrib canaliculate above; secondary nerves ca. 8 pairs; tertiary nerves broadly reticulate.

Inflorescence / Flower

Inflorescence racemes, to 15 cm long, pendulous; peduncle to 3 cm long; pedicel 0.8 cm long; flowers zygomorphic, yellow; petals 3, lower one boat shaped.

Fruit and Seed

Capsule, obcordate, inflated; seeds 2, globose, compressed; carunlce orange-red.

"
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Diagnostic

Habit: Erect Shrub
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Synonym

Polygala arillata var. ovata Gagnepain.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Evergreen and shola forests
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Forests, forest margins on mountain slopes; (700-)1000-2800(-3000) m.
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Growing in forests, forest margins on mountain slopes; 900-2800 m.
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Source: Plants of Tibet

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General Ecology

Ecology

Understorey trees in evergreen forests at medium elevation between 1200 and 1600 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: October-December
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Flowering from May to October; fruiting from June to November.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Notes

Comments

Material with ovate leaves has been separated as Polygala arillata var. ovata (in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1: 231. 1939); however, leaf shape, along with other characters, is very variable in P. arillata. Thus this variety, along with P. arillata var. laevicarpa R. N. Banerjee & G. S. Giri (Candollea 42(2): 55. 1987) described from Nepalese material, does not warrant recognition.
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