Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Dry deciduous forests, also in the plains"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Climber
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Succulent climbing herb with tendrils. Stems 4-angled with wings at the angles. Leaves fleshy, very broadly ovate, variously 3-lobed; margin dentate. Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered. Fruit red when ripe.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Derivation of specific name

quadrangularis: 4-angled
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Kerala: Alapuzha, Idukki, Kottayam, Malapuram, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"
Global Distribution

Widespread in the drier parts of Africa, Arabia and Indo-Malesia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Very common in the scrub lands and deciduous forests from plains to 500m. Africa, Arabia and India."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution in Egypt

Gebel Elba.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Distribution

Southeast Egypt, tropical Africa, Arabia, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Malaysia, Philippines.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Cissus quadrangularis L.:
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
United States (North America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution: India, Pakistan, Java, East Africa, Malaya, Ceylon Arabia, Cultivated in the gardens of Sind and elsewhere.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In umbellate cymes, leaf oppossed; greenish-yellow, red tipped. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A globose berry, apiculate; green turning red when ripe; seed smooth. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem 4-angular, winged, contracted at nodes. Leaves early caducous.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate distichous

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Ovate-suborbicular to reniform

Leaf Apex

Round

Leaf Base

Round

Leaf Margin

Serrate

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

A perennial herbaceous climber. Stem thick, succulent, quadrangular, angles winged, constricted at nodes, glabrous or slightly downy, almost leafless when old. Tendril long, slender, simple. Petiole 6-12 mm long, glabrous. Leaves simple ovate, entire or cordate, serrulate dentate, or crenate-serrate, 3-lobed, terminal lobe triangular or sub-spathulate, subacute or ± cuspidate, membranous, glabrous on both sides, 3-5 x 5-3 cm; stipules ovate or cuneate, obtuse, deciduous. Inflorescence a compound umbelliform cymes, peduncle 1-2.5 cm long. Flower pink and white, 2 mm long, hypanthium cuplike, truncate or obsurely lobed, green, c. 2 mm broad. Petals 4,distinct, ovate-oblong, acute, hooded at apex, c. 1.5 mm long. Disc longer than the ovary. Ovary glabrous, style slender subulate, stigma small. Berry globose, red, succulent, very acidic, 6-10 mm in diameter, 1 seeded. Seed obovoid smooth, 4-8 mm across.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A succulent, rambling shrub, to 4m."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

"Rambling, succulent, glabrous, deciduous shrubs; stem 4-angular, winged or ridged at angles, constricted at nodes; tendril simple. Leaves simple, entire or 3-lobed, 2-5 x 2-5 cm, ovate-suborbicular or subreniform, base truncate, margin distantly spinulose-crenate, apex obtuse, thick-coriaceous; petiole to 1 cm long. Flowers in leaf-opposed, peduncled, umbellate cymes. Calyx-tube obscurely 4-lobed, c. 2 mm long, reddish. Petals c. 2.5 mm long, ovate, acute, greenish-yellow, recurved. Stamens 4; filaments to 2 cm long; anthers yellow. Disk 4-lobed, yellow. Ovary c. 1mm long, 2-celled; ovules 2 per cell. Berry c. 7 mm across, subglobose. Seeds black, smooth."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

Habit: Scandent shrub
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Dry deciduous forests, also in the plains"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

"Common in the plains, from scrub jungles and wastelands to 900m, on thickets. India and widespread in drier parts of Africa and Arabia."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wadi beds.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Hippotion celerio (Silver-striped hawk, Vine hawk) Hippotion osiris (Large striped hawk)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Frequency

Occasional
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: June-January
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

Perennial.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cissus quadrangularis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cissus quadrangularis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

Indigenous Information: The young stem and leaves are made into chutney eaten as an appetizer. Stem used as a rope.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

The young leaves are very frequently used by traditional bone setters of India.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Medicinal
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Cissus quadrangularis

Cissus quadrangularis is a perennial plant of the grape family. It is commonly known as Veldt Grape or Devil's Backbone.

Distribution[edit]

It is probably native to India or Sri Lanka, but is also found in Africa, Arabia, and Southeast Asia. It has been imported to Brazil and the southern United States. It is very commonly known as asthisamharaka. Cissus has been used in various ayurvedic classical medicines to heal broken bones and injured ligaments and tendons.

Description[edit]

Cissus quadrangularis reaches a height of 1.5 m and has quadrangular-sectioned branches with internodes 8 to 10 cm long and 1.2 to 1.5 cm wide. Along each angle is a leathery edge. Toothed trilobe leaves 2 to 5 cm wide appear at the nodes. Each has a tendril emerging from the opposite side of the node. Racemes of small white, yellowish, or greenish flowers; globular berries are red when ripe.

Use[edit]

Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a medicinal plant since antiquity. In siddha medicine it is considered a tonic and analgesic, and is believed to help heal broken bones, thus its name asthisamharaka (that which prevents the destruction of bones). It is said to have antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antihemorrhoidal and analgesic activities.[1] It has been found to contain a rich source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid.[2] Its bactericidal effects on Helicobacter pylori hold promise as a potential treatment of gastric ulcers in conjunction with NSAID therapy.[3] A weight loss supplement containing Cissus quadrangularis and other ingredients including green tea, soy, selenium, chromium, and B vitamins was evaluated in an 8-week trial. The supplement helped reduce body weight by 4-8% ( placebo 2.4%) a clinically significant weight loss.[4]

Experimental studies[edit]

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis L. (CQ) on the healing process of experimentally fractured radius-ulna of dog. CQ treated animals revealed faster initiation of healing process than the control animals on radiological and histopathological examinations. The treated group also revealed a decrease in serum calcium level to a greater extent than the control group. Healing was almost complete on 21st day of fracture in the treated animals and remained incomplete in the control animals. No significant alteration of serum calcium level was observed on 21 st day of fracture in both the groups.[5][6]

A paper published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology in October 2010, on conflicts of interest in alternative weight loss product research, noted that at least three studies supported the safety and effectiveness of CQ for weight loss, but "lack financial disclosures or funding sources, beyond mentioning that the CQ being tested was provided by" General Health Alliances, an herbal products manufacturer. The studies did not disclose that one of its authors was a chief scientific officer for GHA that holds a patent on a CQ product.[7]

Chemistry[edit]

C. quadrangularis produces the resveratrol dimer quadrangularin A.[8]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pharmacological and therapeutic activity of Cissus quadrangularis: An overview Mishra G., Srivastava S., Nagori B.P. International Journal of PharmTech Research 2010 2:2 (1298-1310)
  2. ^ In vitro and In vivo evaluation of free radical scavenging potential of Cissus quadrangularis, Mallika Jainu1 and C.S. Shyamala Devi, African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 8 (2005); 95 - 99, http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajbr/article/viewFile/35768/59535
  3. ^ Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats
  4. ^ Greenway, FL; Bray, GA (2010). "Combination drugs for treating obesity". Current Diabetes Reports 10 (2): 108–15. doi:10.1007/s11892-010-0096-4. PMID 20425569. 
  5. ^ Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1994; 26: 44 - 45
  6. ^ D.K. DEKA, L.C. LAHON, J. SAIKIA** A. MUKIT***Departments of Pharmacology_and Toxicology, Surgery and Radiology and Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati - 781 022
  7. ^ Lobb, Anno (14 October 2010). "Science of weight loss supplements: Compromised by conflicts of interest?". World Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (38): 4880–4882. doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i38.4880. PMC 2955261. PMID 20939120. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  8. ^ Total Synthesis of (±)-Quadrangularin A. Wenling Li, Hao Li, Ying Li and Zijie Hou, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Volume 45, Issue 45, page 7609-7611, doi:10.1002/anie.200603097
  9. ^ Sinónimos en Tropicos
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

The stem is cooked and eaten locally.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!