Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Succulent climbing herb with tendrils. Stems 4-angled with wings at the angles. Leaves fleshy, very broadly ovate, variously 3-lobed; margin dentate. Inflorescences axillary, few-flowered. Fruit red when ripe.
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Derivation of specific name

quadrangularis: 4-angled
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Dry deciduous forests, also in the plains"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Climber
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Distribution

Worldwide distribution

Widespread in drier parts of tropical Africa and Madagascar, Arabia, India, Sri Lanka, Malesia and the Philippenes.
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Kerala: Alapuzha, Idukki, Kottayam, Malapuram, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram"
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"
Global Distribution

Widespread in the drier parts of Africa, Arabia and Indo-Malesia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Very common in the scrub lands and deciduous forests from plains to 500m. Africa, Arabia and India."
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Distribution in Egypt

Gebel Elba.

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Global Distribution

Southeast Egypt, tropical Africa, Arabia, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Malaysia, Philippines.

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Distribution: India, Pakistan, Java, East Africa, Malaya, Ceylon Arabia, Cultivated in the gardens of Sind and elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In umbellate cymes, leaf oppossed; greenish-yellow, red tipped. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A globose berry, apiculate; green turning red when ripe; seed smooth. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Stem 4-angular, winged, contracted at nodes. Leaves early caducous.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate distichous

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Ovate-suborbicular to reniform

Leaf Apex

Round

Leaf Base

Round

Leaf Margin

Serrate

"
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Description

A perennial herbaceous climber. Stem thick, succulent, quadrangular, angles winged, constricted at nodes, glabrous or slightly downy, almost leafless when old. Tendril long, slender, simple. Petiole 6-12 mm long, glabrous. Leaves simple ovate, entire or cordate, serrulate dentate, or crenate-serrate, 3-lobed, terminal lobe triangular or sub-spathulate, subacute or ± cuspidate, membranous, glabrous on both sides, 3-5 x 5-3 cm; stipules ovate or cuneate, obtuse, deciduous. Inflorescence a compound umbelliform cymes, peduncle 1-2.5 cm long. Flower pink and white, 2 mm long, hypanthium cuplike, truncate or obsurely lobed, green, c. 2 mm broad. Petals 4,distinct, ovate-oblong, acute, hooded at apex, c. 1.5 mm long. Disc longer than the ovary. Ovary glabrous, style slender subulate, stigma small. Berry globose, red, succulent, very acidic, 6-10 mm in diameter, 1 seeded. Seed obovoid smooth, 4-8 mm across.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A succulent, rambling shrub, to 4m."
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Diagnostic

"Rambling, succulent, glabrous, deciduous shrubs; stem 4-angular, winged or ridged at angles, constricted at nodes; tendril simple. Leaves simple, entire or 3-lobed, 2-5 x 2-5 cm, ovate-suborbicular or subreniform, base truncate, margin distantly spinulose-crenate, apex obtuse, thick-coriaceous; petiole to 1 cm long. Flowers in leaf-opposed, peduncled, umbellate cymes. Calyx-tube obscurely 4-lobed, c. 2 mm long, reddish. Petals c. 2.5 mm long, ovate, acute, greenish-yellow, recurved. Stamens 4; filaments to 2 cm long; anthers yellow. Disk 4-lobed, yellow. Ovary c. 1mm long, 2-celled; ovules 2 per cell. Berry c. 7 mm across, subglobose. Seeds black, smooth."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Scandent shrub
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Dry deciduous forests, also in the plains"
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General Habitat

"Common in the plains, from scrub jungles and wastelands to 900m, on thickets. India and widespread in drier parts of Africa and Arabia."
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Wadi beds.

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Associations

Insects whose larvae eat this plant species

Hippotion celerio (Silver-striped hawk, Vine hawk) Hippotion osiris (Large striped hawk)
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Population Biology

Frequency

Occasional
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: June-January
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Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cissus quadrangularis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cissus quadrangularis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

Indigenous Information: The young stem and leaves are made into chutney eaten as an appetizer. Stem used as a rope.
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Uses

The young leaves are very frequently used by traditional bone setters of India.
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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Cissus quadrangularis

Cissus quadrangularis is a perennial plant of the grape family. It is also commonly known as Veldt Grape, Devil's Backbone, Asthisamharaka and Hadjod.

Distribution[edit]

It is probably native to India or Sri Lanka, but is also found in Africa, Arabia, and Southeast Asia. It has been imported to Brazil and the southern United States.

Description[edit]

Cissus quadrangularis reaches a height of 1.5 m and has quadrangular-sectioned branches with internodes 8 to 10 cm long and 1.2 to 1.5 cm wide. Along each angle is a leathery edge. Toothed trilobe leaves 2 to 5 cm wide appear at the nodes. Each has a tendril emerging from the opposite side of the node. Racemes of small white, yellowish, or greenish flowers; globular berries are red when ripe.

Traditional medicine[edit]

Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a medicinal plant since antiquity.[citation needed] Cissus has been used in various Ayurvedic classical medicines to heal broken bones and injured ligaments and tendons.[citation needed] In siddha medicine it is considered a tonic and analgesic, and is believed to help heal broken bones, thus its name asthisamharaka (that which prevents the destruction of bones). The Garo tribe of Bangladesh have used C. quadrangularis as a medicinal plant for bone fracture.[1]

Experimental studies[edit]

One preliminary clinical study found a benefit in weight reduction and an improvement in the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome in obese patients when given C. quadrangularis supplements.[2] Another study found a potential synergistic effect between C. quadrangularis and Irvingia gabonensis.[3] A weight loss supplement containing Cissus quadrangularis and other ingredients including green tea, soy, selenium, chromium, and B vitamins was evaluated in an 8-week trial. The supplement helped reduce body weight by 4-8% ( placebo 2.4%) a clinically significant weight loss.[4]

A paper published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology in October 2010, on conflicts of interest in alternative weight loss product research, noted that at least three studies supported the safety and effectiveness of CQ for weight loss, but "lack financial disclosures or funding sources, beyond mentioning that the CQ being tested was provided by" General Health Alliances, an herbal products manufacturer. The studies did not disclose that one of its authors was a chief scientific officer for GHA that holds a patent on a CQ product.[5]

C. quadrangularis has been studied for its effects in a rat model for osteoporosis.[6]

C. quadrangularis has been studied in animal models of bone fracture.[7]

Its bactericidal effects on Helicobacter pylori indicate a potential use for treating gastric ulcers in conjunction with NSAID therapy.[8]

Chemistry[edit]

C. quadrangularis has been found to contain carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid.[9] The plant also produces the resveratrol dimer quadrangularin A.[10]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mia, Md. Manzur-ul-Kadir; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Hossan, Md. Shahadat; Rahmatullah, Mohammed (Jan–Apr 2009). "Medicinal plants of the Garo tribe inhabiting the Madhupur forest region of Bangladesh". American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 3 (2): 165–171. 
  2. ^ Oben, J.; Kuate, D.; Agbor, G.; Momo, C.; Talla, X. (2006). "The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome". Lipids in Health and Disease 5: 24. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-5-24. PMC 1570348. PMID 16948861.  edit
  3. ^ Oben, J. E.; Ngondi, J. L.; Momo, C. N.; Agbor, G. A.; Sobgui, C. (2008). "The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: A double-blind placebo-controlled study". Lipids in Health and Disease 7: 12. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-7-12. PMC 2330043. PMID 18377661.  edit
  4. ^ Greenway, FL; Bray, GA (2010). "Combination drugs for treating obesity". Current Diabetes Reports 10 (2): 108–15. doi:10.1007/s11892-010-0096-4. PMID 20425569. 
  5. ^ Lobb, Anno (14 October 2010). "Science of weight loss supplements: Compromised by conflicts of interest?". World Journal of Gastroenterology 16 (38): 4880–4882. doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i38.4880. PMC 2955261. PMID 20939120. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  6. ^ Potu, B. K.; Rao, M. S.; Nampurath, G. K.; Chamallamudi, M. R.; Prasad, K.; Nayak, S. R.; Dharmavarapu, P. K.; Kedage, V.; Bhat, K. M. R. (2009). "Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. On ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis". Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 114 (3): 140–8. doi:10.1080/03009730902891784. PMC 2852762. PMID 19736603.  edit
  7. ^ "Effect of Cissus Quadrangularis in Accelerating Healing Process of Experimentally Fracture Radius-Ulna of Dog: A Preliminary Study". Indian Journal of Pharmacology 26: 44–45. 1994. 
  8. ^ Jainu, M.; Mohan, K. V.; Devi, C. S. S. (2006). "Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104 (3): 302–5. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.076. PMID 16338111.  edit
  9. ^ Mallika Jainu and C.S. Shyamala Devi (2005). "In vitro and In vivo evaluation of free radical scavenging potential of Cissus quadrangularis". African Journal of Biomedical Research 8: 95–99. 
  10. ^ Wenling Li, Hao Li, Ying Li and Zijie Hou. "Total Synthesis of (±)-Quadrangularin A". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 45 (45): 7609–7611. doi:10.1002/anie.200603097. 
  11. ^ Sinónimos en Tropicos
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Notes

Comments

The stem is cooked and eaten locally.
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