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Overview

Distribution

Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Pakistan, Russia; Europe].
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Distribution: Kashmir; Europe and Southwest Asia eastwards to India.
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Distributed in Japan, Korea, China and Siberria.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Tufted perennial with short rhizomes; culms 60-150 cm high, erect, rather stout, smooth. Leaf-blades up to 50 cm long, 4-12 mm wide, flat, scabrid above; ligule 2-4 mm long, obtuse or truncate. Panicle erect, 10-25 cm long and up to 5 cm wide, often rather dense, light brown or purplish. Spikelets 4-6 mm long, the rhachilla prolonged and penicillate; glumes subequal, lanceolate, scaberulous; lemma about two-thirds the length of the glumes, scaberulous, 2-toothed at the tip; awn 1-2 times the length of the lemma and arising from near its base, usually twisted below and slightly bent; callus hairs not more than half as long as the floret, usually less.
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Description

Perennial, tufted, sometimes shortly rhizomatous. Culms erect, slender or robust, (40–)100–150 cm tall, 2.5–5 mm in diam., 2–3-noded. Leaf sheaths glabrous to densely pubescent, or sheath-collar pilose; leaf blades flat or involute, 5–60 cm, 2–12 mm wide, smooth, scabrid or pubescent; ligule 4–13 mm, obtuse or lacerate. Panicle contracted to slightly open, lanceolate-ovate in outline, 6–35 × 1–10 cm; branches in whorls, ascending, erect or appressed, 1–2 cm; pedicels scabrid. Spikelets 3–5(–6.5) mm, yellowish green or purplish green; glumes lanceolate, subequal or lower glume slightly longer than upper, 1–3-veined, scabrid, apex acute; callus hairs 1/5–2/5 length of lemma; lemma 3.8–6.5 mm, subequal to glumes, scabrid, apex erose; awn arising from ca. lower 1/5 of lemma, 7–12 mm, geniculate with twisted column; palea as long as or slightly shorter than lemma; rachilla (0.5–)1.5–2 mm, including hairs 2.5–4 mm. Anthers (1.3–)2–3 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun–Oct.
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Description

Tufted perennial with short rhizome. Culms erect, 20-70 cm tall, 1-2 mm in diameter. Blades 10-40 cm long, 3-6 mm wide; ligule 2-10 mm long. Panicle contracted to open, 5-25 cm long. Spikelets 3.5-4.5 mm long; glumes subequal or the lower somewhat longer thanthe upper, lanceolate, acute; the lower glume 1-nerved; the upper glume 3-nerved. Florets nearly as long as the spikelets or slightly shorter; lemmas 5-nerved, subobtuse to minutely toothed at apex; awn arising from the midrib just above the base; rachilla 1-1.5 mm long, pilose; callus-hairs 1/3-1/2 the length of the lemma; palea shorter than the lemma. Anther 1.3-2 mm long.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Calamagrostis pyramidalis Host, Icon. Descr. Gram. Austriac. 4: 28, 1809; Agrostis arundinacea Linnaeus; Arundo sylvatica Schrader, nom. illeg. superfl.; C. arisanensis Honda; C. arundinacea (Linnaeus) Roth; C. arundinacea var. brachy-tricha (Steudel) Hackel; C. arundinacea var. ciliata Honda; C. arundinacea var. hirsuta Hackel; C. arundinacea var. latifolia (Rendle) Kitagawa; C. arundinacea var. robusta (Franchet & Savatier) Honda; C. arundinacea var. sciuroides (Franchet & Savatier) Hackel; C. austrojeholensis Honda; C. brachytricha Steudel; C. brachytricha var. ciliata (Honda) Y. Ibaragi & H. Ohashi; C. collina Franchet; C. formosana Hayata; C. matsu-dana Honda; C. morrisonensis Hayata; C. niitakayamensis Honda; C. nipponica Franchet & Savatier; C. robusta Franchet & Savatier; C. sciuroides Franchet & Savatier, nom. hom. illeg.; Deyeuxia ampla Keng; D. brachytricha (Steudel) Chang; D. collina (Franchet) Pilger; D. formosana (Hayata) C. C. Hsu; D. henryi Rendle; D. hupehensis Rendle; D. matsudana (Honda) Keng; D. sylvatica Kunth, nom. illeg. superfl.
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Synonym

Calamagrostis brachytricha Steud., Synop. Gram. 189. 1954; Osada, Illust. Grass. Jap. 348, 1993.
  Agrostis arundinacea L., Sp. Pl. 61. 1753.
  Deyeuxia arundinacea (L.) Beauv., Ess. Agrost. 160. 1812; Hsu, Fl. Taiwan 5: 413. 1978. sensu auct. non Beavuv.
  Calamagrostis arundinacea (L.) Roth, Tent. Fl. Germ. 2(1): 89. 1789; Koyama, Grass. Jap. Neighb. Reg. 187. 1987.
 Calamagrostis formosana Hay., Icon. Pl. Form. 7: 88. 1918.
  Deyeuxia formosana (Hay.) C. Hsu, Taiwania 16: 233. 1791; Hsu, Fl. Taiwan 5: 415. 1978.
  Calamagrostis morrisonensis Hay., Icon. Pl. Form. 7: 89. 1918.
  Calamagrostis niitakayamensis Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 40: 326. 1926.
  Calamagrostis matsudana Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 40: 439. 1926.
  Deyeuxia matsudana (Honda.) C. Hsu, Taiwania 16: 233. 1791; Hsu, Fl. Taiwan 5: 415. 1978.
  Calamagrostis arisanensis Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 40: 440. 1926.
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Type Information

Possible type for Calamagrostis arundinacea var. hirsuta Hack.
Catalog Number: US 865771
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified by specimen annotations only
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): U. Faurie
Locality: Fusan., Japan, Asia-Temperate
  • Possible type: Hackel, E. 1902. Bulletin de L'herbier Boissier. 3 (6): 502.
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Isotype for Deyeuxia sylvatica var. ligulata Rendle
Catalog Number: US 800993
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Henry
Year Collected: 1885
Locality: Hupeh, China, Asia-Temperate
  • Isotype: Rendle, A. B. 1904. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 36: 397.
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Ecology

Habitat

Grassy slopes, open woods; 100–4200 m.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Calamagrostis arundinacea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Calamagrostis arundinacea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Calamagrostis arundinacea

Calamagrostis arundinacea is a species of bunch grass in the Poaceae family, native to Eurasia, China and India.[1]

Description[edit]

The species is perennial and tufted with short rhizomes and erect culms that are 60–150 centimetres (24–59 in) long. Each leaf has a truncate ligule which is 2–4 millimetres (0.08–0.16 in) long, and obtuse. The leaf-blades are 8–50 mm (0.3–2.0 in) by 1.8–10 mm (0.07–0.39 in), hairless and have both a scabrous surface and an attenuate apex. The panicle has a scaberulous peduncle and is lanceolate, open, continuous, and is 8–18 cm (3.1–7.1 in) long by 1–4 cm (0.4–1.6 in) wide. Flowers have a pair of lodicules and stigmas, and three anthers which are 2.4–2.7 mm (0.09–0.11 in) long. The fruit is a caryopsis with an additional pericarp.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b W.D. Clayton; M. Vorontsova, K.T. Harman & H. Williamson. "Calamagrostis arundinacea". Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew: The Board of Trustees. Retrieved March 31, 2013. 


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Notes

Comments

This is a highly polymorphic complex, with many local variants.

The name Deyeuxia sylvatica Kunth, based on Arundo sylvatica Schrader (1806), is illegitimate because Schrader cited Agrostis arun-dinacea Linnaeus (1753) in synonymy. Varietal combinations under D. sylvatica should be transferred to D. pyramidalis if it is wished to maintain them (D. sylvatica var. borealis Rendle, var. brachytricha (Steudel) Rendle, var. hirsuta (Hackel) Rendle, var. latifolia Rendle, var. ligulata Rendle, and var. sciuroides (Franchet & Savatier) Rendle).

The name Deyeuxia arundinacea P. Beauvois is often presumed to be based on Agrostis arundinacea Linnaeus, but this is not the case. In fact, D. arundinacea is a synonym of the Mediterranean grass Am-pelodesmos mauritanicus (Poiret) T. Durand & Schinz. Varietal combinations under D. arundinacea should be transferred to D. pyramidalis if it is wished to maintain them (D. arundinacea var. borealis (Rendle) P. C. Kuo & S. L. Lu, var. brachytricha (Steudel) P. C. Kuo & S. L. Lu, var. ciliata (Honda) P. C. Kuo & S. L. Lu, var. hirsuta (Hackel) P. C. Kuo & S. L. Lu, var. latifolia (Rendle) P. C. Kuo & S. L. Lu, var. ligulata (Rendle) P. C. Kuo & S. L. Lu, var. robusta (Franchet & Savatier) P. C. Kuo & S. L. Lu, and var. sciuroides (Franchet & Savatier) P. C. Kuo & S. L. Lu).

The name "Calamagrostis zhongdianensis L. Liou" (Vasc. Pl. Hengduan Mts. 2: 2235. 1994) belongs here, but was not validly published because no Latin description was provided.

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