Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Adult green shield bugs emerge from hibernation in May and mate in June (2). As with most bugs, individuals mate 'back to back' (4). The eggs are laid in hexagonal batches of around 28, and a single female will lay a number of batches so that the total number she lays will be around 100 (2). All bugs have a type of insect development known as 'hemimetabolous development' in which there is no larval stage but a number of wingless nymphs instead which resemble the adult form(4). This species passes through five nymphal stages, moulting between each one. Each stage has a different colouration, and the final stage has short wings. The adult stage is reached in September, and they go into hibernation in November (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This common bug has a flattened, shield-shaped body, as the name suggests (3). It is bright green in colour with delicate flecks of black that look like small puncture marks (2). In November, the insects darken in colour and spend the winter hibernating with a dark-bronze colouration (2). Although the sexes are similar in appearance, females tend to be larger than males (2). Like all bugs (Hemiptera), the green shield bug has specialised sucking mouthparts, which in this species are used to feed on plant sap (4). This species belongs to a sub-order known as the 'true bugs' (Heteroptera) in which only the tips of the wings are membranous; the rest of the wing is hardened. When the bug is at rest, the wings are held flat over the body and the membranous parts of the wings overlap (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range

Widespread in England and Wales but becomes rare further north, especially in Scotland (1) (2). It is also found in mainland Europe where it is a minor pest (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Found in a wide range of habitats but becomes confined to woodlands in northern parts of its range (1). Its hosts include bushes and shrubs, but hazel is one of its preferred species (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
larva of Cylindromyia brassicaria is endoparasitoid of Palomena prasina
Remarks: Other: uncertain

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph (late instars) of Palomena prasina sucks sap of unripe fruit of Heracleum sphondylium

Foodplant / sap sucker
Palomena prasina sucks sap of Broadleaved trees and shrubs

Foodplant / sap sucker
Palomena prasina sucks sap of Corylus avellana

Foodplant / sap sucker
Palomena prasina sucks sap of Phaseolus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Palomena prasina sucks sap of Medicago sativa

Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
larva of Phasia hemiptera is endoparasitoid of Palomena prasina

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Palomena prasina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Status

Not threatened (2).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

This species is not threatened.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation

Conservation action is not required for this common species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Green shield bug

The green shield bug (Palomena prasina) is a shield bug of the family Pentatomidae. It may also be referred to as a green stink bug, particularly outside of Britain, although the name green stink bug more appropriately belongs to the larger North American stink bug, Acrosternum hilare. The adult green shield bug ranges in the colour of their backs from bright green to bronze, without any substantial markings. Green shield bugs are a very common shield bug throughout Europe, including the British Isles, and are found in a large variety of habitats, including gardens. They have been found as far north as 63° N latitude.

Life cycle[edit]

In Europe, the bright green shield bugs appear in May, having hibernated as imagos during the winter. They fatten for a month and then mate in June. Copulation is back-to-back in typical Heteropteran mating position, as they are not flexible enough for both to face forward. The female lays her eggs in hexagonal batches of 25 to 30, and a single female will lay three to four batches. The imago's colouration changes over the summer from green to a greenish brown almost a bronze, before death. After the eggs hatch, the green shield bug enter their larval stage (which is really their first nymphal stage) where, in general, they remain together in sibling communities. This is made possible by the excretion of an aggregation pheromone. In case of danger, another pheromone is released which causes dispersal. The larval stage is followed by four more nymphal stages with a moult between each one. The green shield bug displays different colouration during each nymphal stage, light brown, black or green-black, and in the final stage, the imago, is bright green with short wings. Usually the imago stage is reached in September, with hibernation occurring in November.

Life cycle gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  • Southwood, T. R. E. and D. Leston, (1959) Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles Frederick Warne & co.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!