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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Sympetrum fonscolombii is a widespread and common species found from the south to the north of Africa, including Madagascar, southern Europe and eastwards to the Middle East, Central Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and the Indian Ocean Islands. Its African range is often exaggerated (Dumont and Martens 1988). The species becomes scarcer towards the north but has expanded its range considerably in the last decades and is now common in most of Central Europe. It has a nomadic behaviour and shows a strong tendency to migrate, and has been found northwards as far as Scotland, the Swedish island of Öland and Latvia. It is likely that climate change will promote a further northwards expansion in the future.
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"Range Description: Sympetrum fonscolombii is a widespread and common species found throughout Africa, southern Europe and eastwards to the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent and the Indian Ocean Islands. The species becomes scarcer towards the north but has expanded its range considerably in the last two decades and is now common in most of Central Europe. The species shows a strong tendency to migrate and has been found northwards as for as Scotland, the Swedish island of Öland and Latvia. It is likely that climate change will facilitate a further northwards expansion in the next years. Countries: Native: Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Austria Bahrain Bangladesh Belgium Benin Bhutan Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Côte d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Egypt (Egypt (African part), Sinai) Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia France (Corse, France (mainland)) Gambia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti) Guinea Guinea-Bissau Hungary India Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Israel Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia) Jordan Kenya Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Luxembourg Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Malawi Mali Malta Mauritania Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands Niger Nigeria Oman Pakistan Palestinian Territory, Occupied Poland Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Portugal (mainland)) Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia) Sierra Leone Slovakia Slovenia Somalia South Africa Spain (Baleares, Canary Is., Spain (mainland)) Sudan Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Tanzania, United Republic of Togo Tunisia Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe) Uganda Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part)) United Arab Emirates Western Sahara Yemen Zambia ZimbabweVagrant:Denmark Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom (Great Britain)"
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Sympetrum fonscolombii is found in, and reproduces in, a wide range of habitats (permanent and ephemeral shallow and sunny standing waters, man-made barrage lakes, tanks and ponds, permanent and seasonal rivers and wadis).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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General Habitat

"Habitat and Ecology: Sympetrum fonscolombii is found mostly at sunny, often shallow, standing waters (including man-made barrage lakes, tanks and ponds), it also occurs in running water. Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater List of Habitats: 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.5, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9"
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sympetrum fonscolombii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Clausnitzer, V.

Reviewer/s
Dow, R.A., Allen, D. & García, N.

Contributor/s
Boudot, J.-P., Schneider, W. & Samraoui, B.

Justification
Sympetrum fonscolombii is assessed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, its colonizing capacity, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a threatened category.

History
  • 2010
    Least Concern
  • 2006
    Least Concern
    (IUCN 2006)
  • 2006
    Least Concern
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"Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1 Year Assessed: 2010 Assessor/s: Clausnitzer, V. Reviewer/s: Dow, R.A. & Allen, D. Justification: Sympetrum fonscolombii is assessed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are needed for this species."
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Population

Population
The species is common and widespread throughout most of its range and is able to (re)colonize promptly formerly dry areas after any rainfall period.

Population Trend
Stable
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Population: The species is common and widespread throughout most of its range. Population Trend: Increasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This is a widespread and colonizing species which is very common, sometimes in huge numbers, in warm countries. It is not threatened.
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Major Threat(s): The species is not threatened.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No conservation action is needed for this species.
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Wikipedia

Red-veined darter

The Red-veined Darter or Nomad[1] (Sympetrum fonscolombii) is a dragonfly of the genus Sympetrum. It is a common species in southern Europe and from the 1990s onwards has increasingly been found in northwest Europe, including Britain and Ireland. Its name is sometimes spelt fonscolombei instead of fonscolombii but Askew (2004) gives the latter as the correct spelling. There is genetic and behavioural evidence that S. fonscolombii is not closely related to the other members of the Sympetrum genus and will at some time in the future be removed from this genus.

Identification[edit]

S. fonscolombii is similar to other Sympetrum species but a good view with binoculars should give a positive identification, especially with a male. Males have a red abdomen, redder than many other Sympetrum species. The wings have red veins and the wing bases of the hind-wings are yellow. The pterostigma are pale with a border of black veins and the underside of the eye is blue/grey. The female is similar but the abdomen is yellow, not red, and the wings have yellow veins, not red veins as found in the males. The legs of both sexes are mostly black with some yellow. Immature males are like females but often with more red.

Male S. fonscolombii can be mistaken for Crocothemis erythraea as both are very red dragonflies with yellow bases to the wings, red veins and pale pterostigma. However C. erythraea has no black on the legs, a broader body and no black on the head. Also C. erythraea females do not oviposit in tandem. The jizz of these two species is different and with some experience are easy to tell apart.


Distribution and habitat[edit]

Occurs in much of central and southern Europe including most Mediterranean islands, in Africa, the Middle East and south-western Asia including India, Sri lanka, and Mongolia. In Europe it is resident in the south of its range but in some years it migrates northward and has been found as far north as Belgium, Sweden, Finland, Poland and northern England. It is the only libellulid to be found in the Azores and it is also found on the Canary islands and Madeira.

It is found in all sorts of still water but being a migrant it is often found away from water. It has been seen flying over the sea.


Behaviour[edit]

S. fonscolombii can be seen on the wing throughout the year around the Mediterranean and in the south of its range, however, its main flight period is May to October and it is scarce during the winter months. It is a territorial species with the males often sitting on an exposed perch. After copulation the pair stay in tandem for egg laying and pairs can be seen over open water with the female dipping her abdomen into the water depositing eggs. Pairs are known to fly over the sea in tandem dipping into the salt water where the eggs soon perish. The eggs and larvae develop rapidly and S. fonscolombii unlike most other European dragonflies has more than one generation a year.

References[edit]

  • Askew, R.R. (2004) The Dragonflies of Europe. (revised ed.) Harley Books.pp180 and 213 . ISBN 0-946589-75-5
  • Boudot JP., et al. (2009) Atlas of the Odonata of the Mediterranean and North Africa. Libellula Supplement 9:1-256.
  • Dijkstra, K-D.B & Lewington, R. (2006) Field Guide to the Dragonflies of Britain and Europe. British Wildlife Publishing. ISBN 0-9531399-4-8.
  1. ^ Samways, Michael J. (2008). Dragonflies and damselflies of South Africa (1st ed. ed.). Sofia: Pensoft. ISBN 9546423300. 
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