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 Life habit: lichenized; Thallus: crustose, areolate or squamulose,; upper surface: dull gray-purplish or copper red, smooth; upper cortex: paraplectenchymatous; medulla: indistinctly separated from ±diffuse photobiont layer; photobionts: primary one a chlorococcoid green alga, secondary photobiont absent; lower cortex: absent; Ascomata: absent or present, apothecial, laminal on thallus, orbicular or lingulate, immersed to semi-immersed, margin indistinct, with thalloid rim; ascomata ontogeny: hemiangiocarpous, forming pycnoascocarps from ascogonia beneath pycnidia; exciple: hyaline,; epithecium: pale red or pale brown; hymenium: hyaline, paraphyses: robust, distinctly septate, moniliform, sparingly branched and anastomosing; apical cells: c. 5 µm wide, reddish pigmented; hypothecium: hyaline; asci: lecanoralean, rostrate, wall thick, inner wall layers with a amyloid collar, 8-spored; ascospores: hyaline, simple, falcate to allantoid; 7-17 µm long, 2-7.5 µm wide, with a thin wall; Conidiomata: pycnidial, laminal, immersed; conidia: globose or ellipsoid, c. 3 x 1 µm; Secondary metabolites: none detected; Geography: Northern Hemisphere in arid, semi-arid and warm temperate regions; Substrate: siliceous rock.; Notes: Recent molecular studies (Schultz and Büdel, unpublished) revealed that Harpidium rutilans and Euopsis pulvinata do not belong to the Lichinaceae but form a separate clade. As a consequence, it is proposed to re-establish the family Harpidiaceae. 

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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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