Overview

Brief Summary

Description

 Thallus: continuous to fissured, with thin to moderately thick verrucae; margin: definite, often zonate; upper surface: whitish gray to greenish gray, margins entire to weakly zoned, epruinose; soredia: farinose, restricted to verrucae or coalescing and spreading onto ruptured thallus surface; Apothecia: no fertile specimens seen; Pycnidia: not seen; Spot tests: K- or K+ yellow to red, C-, KC+ rose-violet, P- or + yellow to red, UV-; Secondary metabolites: picrolichenic and ± protocetraric acids (both major); ± conprotocetraric and subpicrolichenic acid (both minor).; Substrate and ecology: on deciduous trees, such as Aesculus, Quercus or conifers, and also occasionally on siliceous rocks in shady places; World distribution: widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere; Sonoran distribution: in coastal areas of southern California and Baja California and scattered in inland mountains up to 1800 m in Arizona and Chihuahua.; Notes: Pertusaria amara is characterized by small, but coalescing soralia with farinose soredia, a relatively thin, grayish thallus and the presence of the picrolichenic acid chemosyndrome and thus a bitter taste. It is hardly confused with any other Pertusaria species occurring in western North America, except P. albescens. The distinction of both species is discussed above. 
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© Lichen Unlimited: Arizona State University, Tempe.

Source: Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region

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Comprehensive Description

General Description

Common Name: Bitter Wart Lichen

 

Grayish crust lichen with piles of granular-sorediate bitter-tasting infertile apothecia.

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© Jason Hollinger

Source: Mushroom Observer

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Northern hemisphere.

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© Jason Hollinger

Source: Mushroom Observer

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

THALLUS: light to greenish gray, continuous to fissured, often white spotted near margin
 SOREDIA: covering apothecia and sometimes coalescing in center of thallus
 APOTHECIA: generally infertile, covered with white coarsely granular soredia
 CHEMISTRY: soredia KC+ violet (picrolichenic acid), cortex PD- or PD+ red (with or without protocetraric acid)

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© Jason Hollinger

Source: Mushroom Observer

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Ecology

Habitat

Bark of mostly deciduous but occasionally coniferous trees, rarely siliceous rocks. In shady places.

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© Jason Hollinger

Source: Mushroom Observer

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: This species occurs from British Columbia to southern California and throughout the eastern U.S. and southeastern Canada.

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